tm2131243-7_s1a - block - 41.7072332s
TABLE OF CONTENTS
As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on January 20, 2022
Registration No. 333-260828
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
Amendment No. 2
to
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
Science 37 Holdings, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
6770
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
84-4278203
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
800 Park Offices Drive, Suite 3606
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
(984) 377-3737
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Christine Pellizzari
800 Park Offices Drive, Suite 3606
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
(984) 377-3737
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Ryan J. Maierson
Thomas J. Brandt
Erika L. Weinberg
Latham & Watkins LLP
811 Main Street, Suite 3700
Houston, TX 77002
(713) 546-7000
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
As soon as practicable after the effective date of this Registration Statement.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

TABLE OF CONTENTS
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of Securities to Be Registered
Amount to be
Registered
Proposed
Maximum
Offering Price
Per Share
Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price
Amount of
Registration Fee
Common stock, par value $0.0001 per share(1)(2)
103,576,231 $ 11.075(3) $ 1,147,106,758.33(3) $ 106,336.80(4)(5)
(1)
Pursuant to Rule 416(a) of the Securities Act, there are also being registered an indeterminable number of additional securities as may be issued to prevent dilution resulting from stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.
(2)
The number of shares of common stock being registered represents the sum of (i) 20,000,000 shares of common stock (the “PIPE shares”) issued in a private placement pursuant to subscription agreements entered into on March 5, 2021 (the “PIPE Investment”); (ii) 2,002,260 shares of common stock (the “Founder Shares”) issued in connection with the consummation of the Business Combination (as defined below), in exchange for 2,002,260 shares of Class B common stock of LifeSci Acquisition II Corp. (“LSAQ”) originally issued in a private placement to LifeSci Holdings, LLC (the “Sponsor”) and certain other holders of LSAQ’s Class B common stock; (iii) 3,146,453 shares issued to the Sponsor in exchange for private warrants underlying shares of common stock (the “LSAQ warrants”) in connection with the consummation of the Business Combination defined and described herein; and (iv) up to 78,427,518 shares of common stock issued or issuable to certain former stockholders and other securityholders of Science 37 (the “Science 37 Holders”) in connection with or as a result of the consummation of the Business Combination defined and described herein, consisting of (a) 56,977,921 shares of common stock (the “S37 Holder Shares”), (b) up to 12,500,000 shares of common stock (the “Earn-Out Shares”) that certain Science 37 Holders have the contingent right to receive upon the achievement of certain stock price-based vesting conditions, and (c) 8,949,597 outstanding options to purchase shares of common stock.
(3)
Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee, based on the average of the high and low prices of the common stock on the Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC on November 4, 2021 ($11.075 per share). This calculation is in accordance with Rule 457(c) of the Securities Act.
(4)
Calculated by multiplying the proposed maximum aggregate offering price of securities to be registered by 0.0000927.
(5)
Includes $103,106.48 already paid.
The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to Completion Preliminary Prospectus dated January 20, 2022.
P R O S P E C T U S
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_science-4clr.jpg]
Science 37 Holdings, Inc.
103,576,231 Shares of Common Stock
This prospectus relates to the offer and sale from time to time by the selling securityholders named in this prospectus (the “Selling Securityholders”) of up to 103,576,231 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, consisting of (i) 20,000,000 shares of common stock (the “PIPE shares”) issued in a private placement pursuant to subscription agreements entered into on March 5, 2021 (the “PIPE Investment”); (ii) 2,002,260 shares of common stock (the “founder shares”) issued in connection with the consummation of the Business Combination (as defined below), in exchange for 2,002,260 shares of Class B common stock of LifeSci Acquisition II Corp. (“LSAQ”) originally issued in a private placement to LifeSci Holdings, LLC (the “Sponsor”) and certain other holders of LSAQ’s Class B common stock; (iii) 3,146,453 shares issued to the Sponsor in exchange for private warrants underlying shares of common stock (the “LSAQ warrants”) in connection with the Business Combination defined and described herein; and (iv) up to 78,427,518 shares of common stock issued or issuable to certain former stockholders and other securityholders of Science 37 (the “Science 37 Holders”) in connection with or as a result of the consummation of the Business Combination (as defined below), consisting of (a) up to 56,977,921 shares of common stock (the “Science 37 Shares”); (b) up to 12,500,000 shares of common stock (the “Earn-Out Shares”) that certain Science 37 Holders have the contingent right to receive upon the achievement of certain stock price-based vesting conditions, and (c) 8,949,597 outstanding options to purchase shares of common stock.
On October 6, 2021, we consummated the business combination, or the Business Combination, contemplated by the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated May 6, 2021, by and among LSAQ, LifeSci Acquisition II Merger Sub, Inc., a Delaware corporation and wholly-owned subsidiary of LSAQ (“Merger Sub”), and Science 37, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Legacy Science 37”) (the “Merger Agreement”). Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, Merger Sub was merged with and into Legacy Science 37, with Legacy Science 37 surviving the merger as a wholly owned subsidiary of LSAQ (the “Business Combination”). Upon the closing of the Business Combination (the “Closing”), we changed our name to Science 37 Holdings, Inc.
We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of the shares by the Selling Securityholders. We will bear all costs, expenses and fees in connection with the registration of the shares of common stock. The Selling Securityholders will bear all commissions and discounts, if any, attributable to their sales of the shares of common stock.
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC, or Nasdaq, under the symbol “SNCE”. On January 19, 2022, the closing sale price of our common stock as reported on the Nasdaq was $8.85.
We are an “emerging growth company” under applicable Securities and Exchange Commission rules and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company disclosure requirements for this prospectus and future filings. See “Prospectus Summary — Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company.”
Our business and investment in our common stock involve significant risks. These risks are described in the section titled “Risk Factors” beginning on page 4 of this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is            , 2022.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Clause
Page
ii
iii
v
1
4
35
36
37
38
39
48
61
84
90
107
114
116
121
125
128
128
128
F-1
 
i

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-1 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using the “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, the Selling Securityholders may, from time to time, sell or otherwise distribute the securities offered by them as described in the section titled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale by such Selling Securityholders of the securities offered by them described in this prospectus.
We may also file a prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment, you should rely on the prospectus supplement or post-effective amendment, as applicable. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read this prospectus, any post-effective amendment, and any applicable prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Neither we, nor the Selling Securityholders, have authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any post-effective amendment, or any applicable prospectus supplement prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We and the Selling Securityholders take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We and the Selling Securityholders will not make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any post-effective amendment and any applicable prospectus supplement to this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on its respective cover. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. This prospectus contains, and any post-effective amendment or any prospectus supplement may contain, market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. In addition, the market and industry data and forecasts that may be included in this prospectus, any post-effective amendment or any prospectus supplement may involve estimates, assumptions and other risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, any post-effective amendment and the applicable prospectus supplement. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.
We own or have rights to trademarks, trade names and service marks that we use in connection with the operation of our business. In addition, our name, logos and website name and address are our trademarks or service marks. Solely for convenience, in some cases, the trademarks, trade names and service marks referred to in this prospectus are listed without the applicable®,™ and SM symbols, but we will assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights to these trademarks, trade names and service marks. Other trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners.
As used in this prospectus, unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” the “company” and “S37” refer to the consolidated operations of Science 37 Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries. References to “LSAQ” refer to the company prior to the consummation of the Business Combination and references to “Legacy Science 37” refer to Science 37, Inc. prior to the consummation of the Business Combination.
 
ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements. We intend such forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy, plans and prospects, existing and prospective products, research and development costs, timing and likelihood of success, and plans and objectives of management for future operations and results, are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.
Factors that may impact such forward-looking statements include:

expectations regarding the Company’s strategies and future financial performance, including its future business plans or objectives, prospective performance and opportunities and competitors, revenues, backlog conversion, products and services, pricing, operating expenses, market trends, liquidity, cash flows and uses of cash, capital expenditures, and ability to invest in growth initiatives and pursue acquisition opportunities;

risks related to the Company’s technology, intellectual property and data privacy practices;

risks related to the Company’s reliance on third parties;

risks related to the general economic and financial market conditions; political, legal and regulatory environment; and the industries in which the Company operates;

the ability to recognize the anticipated benefits of the Business Combination;

the risk that the Company will need to raise additional capital to execute its business plan, which may not be available on acceptable terms or at all;

limited liquidity and trading of the Company’s securities;

volatility in the price of Science 37’s securities due to a variety of factors, including changes in the competitive and highly regulated industries in which Science 37 plans to operate, variations in performance across competitors and changes in laws and regulations affecting Science 37’s business;

geopolitical risk and changes in applicable laws or regulations;

the possibility that the Company may be adversely affected by other economic, business, and/or competitive factors;

operational risks;

the risks that the COVID-19 pandemic, and local, state, and federal responses to addressing the pandemic, may have an adverse effect on our business operations, as well as our financial condition and results of operations; and

litigation and regulatory enforcement risks, including the diversion of management time and attention and the additional costs and demands resulting therefrom on the Company’s resources.
The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus are based on the Company’s current expectations and beliefs concerning future developments and their potential effects on the Transactions and the Company. There can be no assurance that future developments affecting the Company will be those that the Company has anticipated. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties (some of which are beyond the Company’s control) or other assumptions that may cause actual results or performance to be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.
 
iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those factors described or incorporated by reference under the heading “Risk Factors” below. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should any of the assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary in material respects from those projected in these forward-looking statements. The Company will not and does not undertake any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.
 
iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
FREQUENTLY USED TERMS
Unless otherwise stated in this prospectus, the terms, “we,” “us,” or “our” refer to Science 37 Holdings, Inc., a Delaware corporation. Further, in this document:

“Board” means the board of directors of Science 37 Holdings, Inc.

“Business Combination” means the merger contemplated by the Merger Agreement.

“Certificate of Incorporation” or the “Charter” means our Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation.

“Closing Date” means the date of the consummation of the Business Combination.

“Code” means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.

“Bylaws” means our Amended and Restated Bylaws.

“common stock” or “Science 37 Common Stock” means the shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of Science 37.

“Effective Time” means the time at which the Business Combination became effective.

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

“founder shares” means the outstanding shares of common stock issued to the Sponsor for an aggregate purchase price of $25,000 on January 1, 2020.

“GAAP” means accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

“IPO” refers to the initial public offering of 7,500,000 shares of common stock consummated on November 24, 2020.

“LSAQ” means LifeSci Acquisition II Corp, a Delaware corporation, prior to the consummation of the Business Combination.

“Merger Agreement” means that certain Merger Agreement, dated as of May 6, 2021, by and among LSAQ, Merger Sub and Science 37.

“Merger Sub” means LifeSci Acquisition II Merger Sub, Inc., a Delaware corporation and wholly- owned subsidiary of LSAQ.

“PIPE Investment” means the issuance of 20,000,000 shares of common stock to certain investors for an aggregate of $200,000,000 in a private placement immediately prior to the closing of the Business Combination.

“SEC” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

“Science 37” means Science 37, Inc., a Delaware corporation.

“Sponsor” means LifeSci Holdings, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company.
 
v

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights, and is qualified in its entirety by, the more detailed information and financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information that may be important to you in making your investment decision. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, especially the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page 4 and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing at the end of this prospectus, before deciding to invest in our common stock.
Overview
Founded in 2014, Science 37 pioneered the concept of decentralized clinical trials (“DCTs”) with a very simple premise: that clinical trials should begin with the patient. With approximately $195 billion spent annually in biopharmaceutical research and development and approximately $60 billion spent annually in serviceable clinical trials, Science 37 is disrupting a large market.
Today, Science 37 continues to be a leader in the DCT category and believes that it is uniquely positioned as an operating system with both end-to-end technology to enable DCTs and specialized networks to orchestrate trial execution. Science 37 believes it has more scale to manage and experience in conducting decentralized clinical trials than any other company, having executed more than 95 clinical trials with over 475,000 patients engaged to date. Compared to the traditional model, Science 37 has been able to initiate clinical trials up to four times faster, recruit patients up to 15 times faster and retain patients at up to 28% higher rates. Additionally, enrollment through Science 37 has resulted in up to three times more diverse participant pools, better representing the real world population. As the commercial value of a drug is highest prior to its patent expiry date, these efficiency gains are critical. If a typical drug can get to market three months earlier, it is estimated that between $54 million and $720 million of additional revenue can be generated over the life of that drug.
Science 37 is addressing an industry that it believes is ripe for disruption, with the clinical trial model having been largely unchanged over the past 60 to 90 years. The traditional clinical trial model relies on a network of physical clinical research sites for trial execution, requiring patients to travel to a site for each visit. The infrastructure required for each site to operate, in addition to the fragmentation that results from each site using their own processes and technology tools, has given rise to a myriad of challenges, including slow start up, poor enrollment, high patient drop-out rates, and lack of diversity, all of which affect the timelines to launch life-saving drug treatments for patients. Only about 8% of patients are approached to join a clinical trial because most do not live near a participating research site. About 19% of the patients recruited do not complete the full study. In parallel, only about 5% of providers participate in clinical research due to the high cost and low incentives to house clinical teams or send patients out of their practice for a clinical trial. In the end, approximately 85% of trials experience delays, 94% of them greater than one month, resulting in timelines as long as 13 years to launch drug treatments globally.
Through its direct-to-patient approach, Science 37 seeks to reduce the impact of the geographic barriers associated with conventional physical clinical trial sites, enable recruitment of virtually any patient, and provide patients with personalized support throughout the clinical trial journey. Science 37 believes that bringing the clinical trial directly to the patient may address traditional-model problems around patient retention and engagement head on. Furthermore, Science 37 aims to offer a model for providers to seamlessly participate as investigators without all of the site infrastructure costs.
Science 37’s patient-centric model is powered by a category-defining clinical trial operating system and its team of approximately 300 employees with significant subject matter expertise. The backbone of the operating system is a unified technology platform, which is combined with Science 37’s specialized network of patient communities, on-demand telemedicine investigators, flexible mobile nurse networks, scalable remote coordinators and robust connected technologies.
Background
We were incorporated as LifeSci Acquisition II Corp. on December 18, 2019. On October 6, 2021, we closed the Business Combination with Legacy Science 37, as a result of which Legacy Science 37 became a wholly-owned subsidiary of ours, and we changed our name to Science 37 Holdings, Inc. While we are the
 
1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
legal acquirer of Legacy Science 37 in the Business Combination, Legacy Science 37 is deemed to be the accounting acquirer, and the historical financial statements of Legacy Science 37 became the historical financial statements of our company upon the closing of the Business Combination.
Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, the following actions were taken, and the following consideration was paid, in connection with the Business Combination:
Preferred Stock.   Immediately prior to the Effective Time and subject to the consent of the holders of a majority of the then outstanding shares of Science 37’s Series A, Series B, Series C, Series D and Series D-1 redeemable convertible preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share (collectively, the “Science 37 Preferred Stock”), voting together as a single class on an as-converted basis, each issued and outstanding share of Science 37 Preferred Stock was converted into shares of the common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of Science 37 (the “Science 37 common stock”) at the then-applicable conversion rates (the “Science 37 Preferred Stock Conversion”).
Common Stock.   At the Effective Time, following the Science 37 Preferred Stock Conversion, each share of Science 37 Common Stock (including shares of Science 37 Common Stock outstanding as a result of the Science 37 Preferred Stock Conversion, but excluding shares the holders of which perfect rights of appraisal under Delaware law) was converted into the right to receive such number of shares of LSAQ Common Stock equal to the Exchange Ratio (subject to rounding mechanisms as described in the Merger Agreement) and a number of Earn-Out Shares (as defined below).
Stock Options.   At the Effective Time, each outstanding option to purchase shares of Science 37 Common Stock (a “Science 37 Option”), whether or not then vested and exercisable, was converted automatically (and without any required action on the part of such holder of outstanding option) into an option to purchase shares of LSAQ Common Stock equal to the number of shares subject to such option prior to the Effective Time multiplied by the Exchange Ratio, with the per share exercise price equal to the exercise price prior to the Effective Time divided by the Exchange Ratio.
Earn-Out Shares.   Following the closing of the Business Combination, former holders of shares of Science 37 Common Stock (including shares received as a result of the Science 37 Preferred Stock Conversion) and former holders of Science 37 Options will be entitled to receive their pro rata share of up to 12,500,000 additional shares of LSAQ Common Stock (the “Earn-Out Shares”) if, within a three-year period following the signing date of the Merger Agreement, the closing share price of the LSAQ Common Stock equals or exceeds any of two thresholds over any 20 trading days within a 30-day trading period (each, a “Triggering Event”) and, in respect of a former holder of Science 37 Options, the holder continues to provide services to LSAQ or one of its subsidiaries at the time of such Triggering Event.
In May 2021, we entered into the Subscription Agreements, pursuant to which certain investors (the “PIPE Investors”) agreed to subscribed for an aggregate of 20,000,000 shares of our common stock at a purchase price of $10.00 per share. Immediately prior to the closing of the Business Combination, we issued and sold 20,000,000 shares of our common stock to the PIPE Investors for aggregate gross proceeds to us of $200 million.
The rights of holders of our common stock are governed by our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, or the certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated bylaws, or the bylaws, and the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL. See the section entitled “Description of Capital Stock.”
Risk Factors
Our business is subject to a number of risks of which you should be aware before making an investment decision. These risks are discussed more fully in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus immediately following this prospectus summary. These risks include the following:

Science 37 has a limited operating history on which to assess the prospects for Science 37’s business, Science 37 has generated limited revenue from sales of Science 37’s products and related services, and Science 37 has incurred losses since inception. Science 37 anticipates that it will continue to incur significant losses for at least the next several years as it continues to commercialize its existing products and services and seeks to develop and commercialize new products and services.
 
2

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

Science 37 has incurred significant losses since inception. As such, you cannot rely upon its historical operating performance to make an investment or voting decision regarding Science 37.

Science 37 may need to raise additional funding to strengthen its core business, expand into additional markets, and extend the reach of its operating system. This additional financing may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. Failure to obtain this necessary capital, when needed may force Science 37 to delay, limit or terminate Science 37’s product commercialization or development efforts or other operations.

The potential loss or non-renewal of Science 37’s contracts, any delay in its customers’ clinical trials or non-payment by its customers for services that Science 37 has performed, could negatively affect its business, results of operations and financial results.

Science 37’s business depends on the continued effectiveness and availability of its information systems, including the information systems Science 37 uses to provide its services to its customers, and failures of these systems may materially limit its operations.

Science 37 relies on third parties for important products, services and licenses to certain technology and intellectual property rights, and there might be problems with such products or services or it might not be able to continue to obtain such products, services and licenses.

Science 37 expects to incur increased costs and obligations as a result of being a public company.

The market price of our common stock is likely to be highly volatile, and you may lose some or all of your investment.

Volatility in our share price could subject us to securities class action litigation.
Corporate Information
Science 37 is a Delaware company founded in September 2014. Science 37’s principal office and mailing address is 800 Park Offices Drive, Suite 3606, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27709, its telephone number is (984) 377-3737 and its website is www.science37.com. The information contained on, or accessible through, Science 37’s website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider any information contained on, or that can be accessed through, Science 37’s website as part of this prospectus.
 
3

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
RISK FACTORS
You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below and the other information in this prospectus before making an investment in our common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, or prospects could be materially and adversely affected if any of these risks occurs, and as a result, the market price of our common stock could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. See “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” Our actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including those set forth below.
Risks Related to Science 37’s Business
Science 37 has a limited operating history on which to assess the prospects for Science 37’s business, Science 37 has generated limited revenue from sales of Science 37’s products and related services and Science 37 has incurred losses since inception. Science 37 anticipates that it will continue to incur significant losses for at least the next several years as it continues to commercialize its existing products and services and seeks to develop and commercialize new products and services.
Since inception, Science 37 has devoted substantially all of its financial resources to develop its products and related services. Science 37 has financed its operations primarily through the issuance of equity securities. Science 37 has generated limited revenue from the sale of its products and services to date and has incurred significant losses. Science 37 has incurred net losses of $29,232,518 in the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and $31,674,084 and $18,468,776 in the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Science 37’s accumulated deficit as of September 30, 2021 was $136,979,761. These losses and accumulated deficit reflect the substantial investments Science 37 made to acquire new clients and partners and to develop its Decentralized Clinical Trial Operating System (the “DCT OS”). Science 37’s ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability and sustain or increase profitability depends upon its ability to accelerate and expand the commercialization of its products and service offerings in line with the demand from new partnerships and its business strategy. Science 37 may be unable to achieve any or all of these goals.
The amount of Science 37’s future net losses will depend, in part, on sales and on-going development of its products and related services, the rate of its future expenditures and its ability to obtain funding through the issuance of the Company’s securities, strategic collaborations or grants. Science 37 expects to continue to incur significant losses for at least the next several years as it continues to commercialize its existing products and services and seeks to develop and commercialize new products and services. Science 37 anticipates that its expenses will increase substantially if and as Science 37:

continues to develop its products and services;

continues to build its sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize its products and services;

seeks to identify, assess, acquire, license and/or develop other products and services and subsequent generations of its current products and services;

seeks to maintain, protect and expand its intellectual property portfolio;

seeks to attract and retain skilled personnel; and

supports its operations as a public company.
Science 37’s ability to generate future revenue from product and service sales depends heavily on its success in many areas, including, but not limited to:

launching and commercializing current and future products and services, either directly or in conjunction with one or more collaborators;

maintaining clinical and economical value for end-users and customers in changing environments;

addressing any competing technological and market developments;
 
4

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

developing and marketing new products or services or entering new markets that complement or expand its existing business;

negotiating favorable terms in any collaboration, licensing or other arrangements into which Science 37 may enter; and

maintaining, protecting and expanding its portfolio of intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets and know-how.
Science 37 has experienced rapid growth and expects to invest in growth for the foreseeable future. If Science 37 fails to manage its growth effectively, its business, operating results and financial condition would be adversely affected.
Science 37 has experienced rapid growth and expansion of its operations. Science 37’s revenues, customer count, employee count, product and service offerings, geographies of operation, and computing infrastructure needs have all increased significantly, and Science 37 expects them to increase in the future. As Science 37 continues to grow, both organically and through acquisitions, Science 37 must effectively integrate, develop, and motivate an increasing number of employees, while executing its growth plan and maintaining the beneficial aspects of its culture. Any failure to preserve Science 37’s culture could negatively affect its future success, including its ability to attract and retain highly qualified employees and to achieve its business objectives.
Science 37’s rapid growth has placed, and will continue to place, a significant strain on its management capabilities, administrative and operational infrastructure, facilities, IT and other resources. Science 37 anticipates that additional investments in its computing infrastructure and facilities will be required to scale its operations. To effectively manage growth, Science 37 must continue to improve its key business applications, processes and computing infrastructure; enhance information and communication systems, and ensure that its policies and procedures evolve to reflect its current operations and are appropriately communicated to and observed by employees. These enhancements and improvements will require additional investments and allocation of valuable time, effort and expense. Failure to effectively manage growth could result in difficulty or delays in deploying Science 37’s solutions, declines in quality or customer satisfaction, increases in costs, difficulties in introducing new features or other operational difficulties, and any of these difficulties could adversely impact its business performance and results of operations.
Science 37 may experience significant quarterly and annual fluctuations in its results of operations due to a number of factors.
Science 37’s quarterly and annual results of operations may fluctuate significantly due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of its control. This variability may lead to volatility in Science 37’s stock price as investors and research analysts respond to quarterly fluctuations. In addition, comparing Science 37’s results of operations on a period-to-period basis, particularly on a sequential quarterly basis, may not be meaningful. You should not rely on Science 37’s past results as an indication of its future performance.
Factors that may affect Science 37’s results of operations include, but are not limited to, fluctuations in its quarterly volume of bookings, fluctuations in its backlog conversion rate, and variability in the types of clinical trials for which Science 37 is awarded contracts. For example, certain clinical trials may require significant upfront expenditures by Science 37 for patient recruitment. These expenditures may not always be recouped from Science 37’s customers, which could adversely affect Science 37’s revenue and its gross margins. The revenue Science 37 derives from the contracts for such clinical trials could therefore be heavily concentrated in one quarterly period, while revenue from contracts for other clinical trials may be more evenly spread across the term of the contract. Booking one or more trials with revenue heavily concentrated in one quarter could cause a temporary spike in Science 37’s quarterly results, which would not be repeated if Science 37 booked fewer or no such trials in subsequent quarters. The foregoing factors are difficult to forecast, and these, as well as other factors, could materially adversely affect Science 37’s quarterly and annual results of operations.
 
5

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Science 37 may need to raise additional funding to strengthen its core business, expand into additional markets, and extend the reach of its operating system. This additional financing may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. Failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed may force Science 37 to delay, limit or terminate Science 37’s product commercialization or development efforts or other operations.
Science 37’s operations have consumed substantial amounts of cash since inception. Science 37 expects to expend substantial additional amounts to strengthen its core business, expand into additional markets, and extend the reach of its operating system. Science 37 expects to use the funds received in connection with the Business Combination to scale its operations, develop new products and services, expand internationally, and for working capital and general corporate purposes. Science 37 may require additional capital to expand the commercialization of Science 37’s existing products and services and to develop new products and services. In addition, Science 37’s operating plans may change as a result of many factors that may currently be unknown to Science 37, and Science 37 may need to seek additional funds sooner than planned.
Science 37 cannot guarantee that future financing will be available in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to it, if at all. Moreover, the terms of any future financing may adversely affect the holdings or the rights of Science 37’s stockholders and the issuance of additional securities, whether equity or debt, by Science 37, or the possibility of such issuance, may cause the market price of its common stock to decline. The incurrence of indebtedness could result in increased fixed payment obligations, and Science 37 may be required to agree to certain restrictive covenants, such as limitations on its ability to incur additional debt, limitations on acquisitions of other companies or business, limitations on its ability to acquire, sell or license intellectual property rights and other operating restrictions that could adversely impact Science 37’s ability to conduct its business. Science 37 could also be required to seek funds through arrangements with collaborative partners or otherwise at an earlier stage than otherwise would be desirable, and Science 37 may be required to relinquish rights to some of its technologies or products or otherwise agree to terms that are unfavorable to Science 37, any of which may have a material adverse effect on its business, operating results and prospects. In addition, raising additional capital through the issuance of equity or convertible debt securities would cause dilution to holders of Science 37’s equity securities, and may affect the rights of then- existing holders of Science 37’s equity securities. Even if Science 37 believes that Science 37 has sufficient funds for its current or future operating plans, Science 37 may seek additional capital if market conditions are favorable or if Science 37 has specific strategic considerations.
Unfavorable general economic conditions could negatively affect Science 37’s business, results of operations and financial condition.
Unfavorable global economic conditions and other adverse macroeconomic factors on global and domestic markets could negatively affect Science 37’s business, results of operations and financial condition. While it is difficult for Science 37 to predict the impact of general economic conditions on its business, unfavorable economic conditions could reduce customer demand for some of its services, which could cause its revenue to decline. For example, Science 37’s customers, particularly those that are especially reliant on the credit and capital markets, might not be able to raise money to conduct existing clinical trials, or to fund new drug development and related future clinical trials. In addition, economic or market disruptions could negatively impact Science 37’s vendors, contractors, or principal investigators which might have a negative effect on its business. For these reasons, among others, if economic conditions stagnate or decline, its operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.
A failure to identify and successfully close and integrate strategic acquisition targets could adversely impact Science 37’s business, results of operations and financial results.
Science 37 anticipates that a portion of its future growth may come from acquiring existing businesses, services or technologies. If Science 37 is unable to identify suitable acquisition targets, complete an acquisition or successfully integrate an acquired company or business, or if Science 37 identifies and acquires targets that do not meet Science 37’s performance expectations for any other reason, its business may be disrupted. The success of an acquisition will depend upon, among other things, Science 37’s ability to:

effectively and quickly assimilate the operations and services or products of the acquired company or business;
 
6

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

integrate acquired personnel;

retain and motivate key employees;

retain customers; and

minimize the diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns.
In the event that the operations of an acquired company or business do not meet Science 37’s performance expectations, Science 37 may have to restructure the acquired company or business or write-off the value of some or all of the assets of the acquired company or business.
Science 37’s actual operating results may differ significantly from guidance provided by its management.
From time to time, Science 37 may release guidance in its earnings releases, earnings conference calls, or otherwise, regarding its future performance that represent its management’s estimates as of the date of release. This guidance, if released, would include forward-looking statements and would be based on projections prepared by Science 37’s management. Science 37’s guidance will not be prepared with a view toward compliance with published accounting and reporting guidelines, and neither its registered public accountants nor any other independent expert or outside party will compile or examine the projections and, accordingly, no such person will express any opinion or any other form of assurance with respect thereto. Guidance will be based upon a number of assumptions and estimates that, while presented with numerical specificity, are inherently subject to significant business, economic, and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond Science 37’s control and are based upon specific assumptions with respect to future business decisions, some of which will change. Science 37 will generally state possible outcomes as high and low ranges, which are intended to provide a sensitivity analysis as variables are changed but are not intended to represent that actual results could not fall outside of the suggested ranges. The principal reason that Science 37 would release guidance would be to provide a basis for Science 37’s management to discuss its business outlook with analysts and investors. Science 37 will not accept any responsibility for any projections or reports published by analysts. Guidance is necessarily speculative in nature, and it can be expected that some or all of the assumptions of the guidance furnished by Science 37 will not materialize or will vary significantly from actual results. Accordingly, Science 37’s guidance will be only an estimate of what management believes is realizable as of the date of release. Actual results will vary from Science 37’s guidance and the variations may be material. In light of the foregoing, investors are urged to put the guidance in context and not to place undue reliance on any such guidance. Any failure to successfully implement Science 37’s operating strategy or the occurrence of any of the events or circumstances discussed therein could result in the actual operating results being different from its guidance, and such differences may be adverse and material.
Risks Related to Science 37’s Business and Operations
The potential loss or non-renewal of Science 37’s contracts, any delay in its customers’ clinical trials or non- payment by its customers for services that Science 37 has performed, could negatively affect its business, results of operations and financial results.
Science 37 from time to time experiences termination, cancellation and non-renewals of contracts by its customers in the ordinary course of business, and the number of cancellations can vary significantly from year to year and could increase in the future. Most of Science 37’s customers for project-based clinical trial services can terminate their contracts without cause upon 30 to 90 days’ notice. For example, Science 37’s cancellation percentage for project-based Phase I through IV trials for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 was 9.9% and 0.0%, respectively, and for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 was 10.7% and 9.1%, respectively. Science 37’s project-based customers may delay, terminate, or reduce the scope of their contracts for a variety of reasons beyond Science 37’s control, including but not limited to:

decisions to forgo or terminate a particular clinical trial;

amendments to a clinical trial protocol and/or the procedures required to support it;

lack of available financing, budgetary limits, or changing priorities;

actions by regulatory authorities;
 
7

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

production problems resulting in shortages of the drug being tested or other supplies required for the operation of the trial;

failure of the drug being tested to satisfy safety requirements or efficacy criteria;

unexpected or undesired clinical results;

insufficient patient enrollment in a trial;

insufficient investigator recruitment;

patient safety concerns;

decisions to downsize product development portfolios;

dissatisfaction with its performance, including the quality of data provided and its ability to meet agreed upon schedules;

shift of business to another life sciences technology provider or to a contract research organization (“CRO”);

decisions to shift from a decentralized clinical trial model to a traditional clinical trial model;

product withdrawal following market launch in conjunction with late-phase research; or

shut down of its customers’ manufacturing facilities.
In the event of termination, Science 37’s contracts often provide for fees for winding down the study, but these fees may not be sufficient for Science 37 to maintain its profit margins, and termination or non- renewal may result in lower resource utilization rates, including with respect to personnel who Science 37 is not able to place on another customer engagement.
Clinical trials can be costly and a material portion of Science 37’s revenue is derived from emerging biotechnology and small to mid-sized pharmaceutical companies, which may have limited access to capital. In addition, Science 37 provides services to such companies before they pay Science 37 for some of its services. There is a risk that Science 37 may initiate a clinical trial for a customer, and the customer subsequently becomes unwilling or unable to fund the completion of the trial. There is also a risk that Science 37 could miscalculate the expenses of executing a trial and agree with a customer to execute such trial at a price that proves insufficient to cover its expenses. In either situation, notwithstanding the customer’s ability or willingness to pay for or otherwise facilitate the completion of the trial, Science 37 may be legally or ethically bound to complete or wind down the trial at its own expense.
Because the contracts included in Science 37’s backlog can generally be terminated without cause, Science 37 does not believe that its backlog as of any date is necessarily a meaningful predictor of future results. In addition, Science 37 may not realize the full benefits of its backlog of contractually committed services if its customers cancel, delay, or reduce their commitments under its contracts with them. In addition, the terminability of Science 37’s contracts puts increased pressure on its quality control efforts, since not only can its contracts be terminated by customers as a result of poor performance, but any such termination may also affect its ability to obtain future contracts from the customer involved and others. Science 37 believes the risk of loss or delay of multiple contracts is even greater in those cases where Science 37 is party to broader partnering arrangements with global biopharmaceutical companies.
Science 37’s backlog may not convert to revenue at a predictable rate, or at all.
Backlog represents anticipated revenue from contracted new business awards, excluding reimbursable out-of-pocket costs or reimbursable investigator fees, that either have not started or are in process but have not been completed. Backlog varies from period to period depending upon new business awards and contract modifications, cancellations, and the amount of revenue recognized under existing contracts. Science 37’s backlog was $141.1 million and $49.4 million at September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Science 37’s revenue conversion rate is based on a financial and operational analysis performed by its project management teams and represents the level of effort expected to be expended at a specific point in time. Once work begins on a project, revenue is recognized over the duration of the project. Projects may be terminated or
 
8

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
delayed by the customer or delayed by regulatory authorities for reasons beyond its control. To the extent projects are delayed, the timing of Science 37’s revenue could be affected. In the event that a customer cancels a contract, Science 37 generally would be entitled to receive payment for all services performed up to the cancellation date, fees and expenses for winding down the project, non-cancellable expenditures and, in some cases, a fee to cover a portion of the remaining professional fees on the project. Generally, however, Science 37 has no contractual right to the full amount of the revenue reflected in its backlog in the event of a contract cancellation. The duration of the projects included in its backlog, and the related revenue recognition, range from a few months to many years. Science 37’s backlog may not be indicative of its future results, and Science 37 may not realize all the anticipated future revenue reflected in its backlog. A number of factors may affect the realization of its revenue from backlog, including:

the size, complexity, and duration of the projects;

the cancellation or delay of projects; and

changes in the scope of work during the course of a project.
Fluctuations in Science 37’s reported backlog levels also result from the fact that it may receive a small number of relatively large orders in any given reporting period that may be included in its backlog. Revenue recognition on larger, more global projects could be slower than on smaller, less global projects for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to, an extended period of negotiation between the time the project is awarded to Science 37 and the actual execution of the contract, as well as an increased time frame for obtaining the necessary regulatory approvals. Fluctuations in Science 37’s reported backlog levels could also result from a number of factors including, but not limited to, differences in recruiting rates for trials, its entry into new markets or geographies, evolution of both its and its competitors’ technologies, and varying rates of adoption of Science 37’s services by clinical sites or investigators, or as a result of its reliance on third parties for various products and services.
The relationship of backlog to realized revenues is indirect and may vary over time. As Science 37 increasingly competes for and enters into large contracts that are more complex in nature, there can be no assurance about the rate at which its backlog will convert into revenue. A decrease in this conversion rate would mean that the rate of revenue recognized on contracts may be slower than what Science 37 has experienced in the past, which could materially and adversely impact its revenue and results of operations on a quarterly and annual basis. Additionally, delayed projects will remain in backlog and will not generate revenue at the rate originally expected, which could impair Science 37’s cash flows and results of operations in the short-term. Because of these large orders, Science 37’s backlog in that reporting period may reach levels that may not be sustained in subsequent reporting periods.
If Science 37 is unable to successfully develop and market new services or enter new markets, Science 37’s growth, results of operations or financial condition could be adversely affected.
A key element of Science 37’s growth strategy is the successful development and marketing of new services or entering new markets that complement or expand its existing business. As Science 37 develops new services or enter new markets, Science 37 may not have or adequately build the competencies necessary to perform such services satisfactorily, may not receive market acceptance for such services or may face increased competition. If Science 37 is unable to succeed in developing new services, entering new markets or attracting a customer base for its new services or in new markets, Science 37 will be unable to implement this element of its growth strategy, and its future business, reputation, results of operations could be adversely impacted.
Science 37 may be unsuccessful in achieving broad market education and changing potential customers’ habits.
Science 37’s success and future growth largely depend on its ability to increase awareness of the potential benefits of the decentralized clinical trial model and of Science 37’s operating system, and on the willingness of current and potential customers to utilize its operating system. To effectively market Science 37’s operating system, Science 37 must educate potential customers about the benefits of using its operating system in lieu of conducting a clinical trial through traditional methods. Science 37 focuses its marketing and education efforts on potential customers, but also aim to educate and inform healthcare providers and other participants that interact with potential customers. However, Science 37 cannot assure that it will be
 
9

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
successful in changing potential customers’ habits or that it will achieve broad market education or awareness. Even if Science 37 is able to raise awareness among potential customers, they may be slow in changing their habits and may be hesitant to use Science 37’s operating system for a variety of reasons, including:

lack of experience with Science 37 and its operating system, and concerns that Science 37 is relatively new to the industry;

perceived health, safety or quality risks associated with the use of a new operating system and applications for clinical trials;

existing relationships with clinical investigators;

concerns about the privacy and security of the data that patients share with or through its operating system;

competition and negative selling efforts from competitors, including competing platforms and price matching programs; and

perception regarding the time and complexity of using its operating system.
If Science 37 fails to achieve broad market education of its operating system, or if Science 37 is unsuccessful in changing potential customers’ habits, its business, financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected.
Science 37’s relationships with existing or potential customers who are in competition with each other may adversely impact the degree to which other customers or potential customers use its services, which may adversely affect its results of operations.
The biopharmaceutical industry is highly competitive. Science 37 regularly provides services to biopharmaceutical companies who compete with each other, and sometimes provides services to such customers regarding competing drugs in development. Science 37’s existing or future relationships with its biopharmaceutical customers may therefore deter other biopharmaceutical customers from using Science 37’s products or services, or may result in its customers reducing the scope of services that Science 37 provides to them or seeking to place limits on Science 37’s ability to serve other biopharmaceutical industry participants in connection with drug development activities.
If Science 37 is unable to attract suitable patients, investigators and mobile nurses for its clinical trials, its clinical development business may suffer.
The recruitment of patients, investigators and mobile nurses for clinical trials is essential to Science 37’s business. Science 37’s clinical development business could be adversely affected if Science 37 is unable to attract suitable and willing investigators or patients for clinical trials on a consistent basis. For example, Science 37 has in the past used, and may in the future use, social media as part of its omnichannel approach to marketing and outreach to patients. Changes to these social networking services’ terms of use or terms of service that limit promotional communications, restrictions that would limit Science 37’s ability or Science 37’s customers’ ability to send communications through their services, disruptions or downtime experienced by these social networking services or reductions in the use of or engagement with social networking services by current and potential investigators and patients could also harm its business. Even in the absence of such changes or restrictions, it is possible that the marketing methods Science 37 has chosen to employ may prove ineffective due to patient preferences or other factors. If Science 37 is unable to engage and enroll sufficient patients or engage investigators and nurses in clinical trials, Science 37 may need to expend additional funds to obtain access to resources or else be compelled to delay or modify the clinical trial plans, which may result in additional costs to Science 37, or to consider termination of ongoing clinical trials, which would result in its failure to convert the related portion of its backlog. These considerations might result in Science 37’s being unable to successfully achieve its projected development timelines, or potentially even lead Science 37 to consider the termination of development of a product.
 
10

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
If Science 37 loses the services of key personnel or is unable to recruit and retain experienced personnel, its business could be adversely affected.
Science 37’s success substantially depends on the collective performance, contributions and expertise of its personnel including senior management and key personnel, qualified professional, scientific and technical operating staff and qualified sales representatives for its contract sales services. There is significant and increasing competition for qualified personnel, particularly those with higher educational degrees, such as a medical degree, a Ph.D. or an equivalent degree, or relevant experience in the industry. In addition, the departure of Science 37’s key employees, or its inability to continue to identify, attract and retain qualified personnel or replace any departed personnel in a timely fashion, may impact its ability to grow its business and compete effectively in its industry and may negatively affect Science 37’s ability to meet financial and operational goals. Furthermore, customers or other companies seeking to develop in-house capabilities may hire some of Science 37’s senior management or key employees.
Serious adverse events, undesirable side effects or other unexpected properties of Science 37’s customers’ product candidates may be identified during development, which could lead to the discontinuation of their clinical development programs.
During the conduct of clinical trials, patients report changes in their health, including illnesses, injuries and discomforts, to their doctor. Often, it is not possible to determine whether or not the product candidate being studied caused these conditions. Regulatory authorities may draw different conclusions or require additional testing to confirm these determinations, if they occur. If clinical experience indicates that any of Science 37’s customers’ product candidates have side effects or cause serious or life-threatening side effects, the development of such product candidates may fail or be delayed, which would harm its business, prospects, operating results and financial condition.
Undesirable side effects caused by Science 37’s customers’ product candidates could cause them or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials. As a result of safety or toxicity issues that may be experienced in clinical trials, such trials may be placed on clinical hold. Results of early-phase clinical trials could reveal an unacceptably high severity and incidence of side effects, or side effects outweighing the benefits of the product candidates being studied. In such an event, the ongoing clinical trials and any potential later-phase clinical trials could be delayed, suspended or terminated, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) or comparable foreign regulatory authorities could order Science 37’s customer to cease further development. The drug-related side effects could also affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled subjects to complete the trial. Any of these events could negatively affect Science 37’s business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Science 37’s insurance may not cover all of its indemnification obligations and other liabilities associated with its operations.
Science 37 maintains insurance designed to provide coverage for ordinary risks associated with its operations and its ordinary indemnification obligations. The coverage provided by such insurance may not be adequate for all claims Science 37 may make or may be contested by Science 37’s insurance carriers. If Science 37’s insurance is not adequate or available to pay liabilities associated with its operations, or if Science 37 is unable to purchase adequate insurance at reasonable rates in the future, its profitability may be adversely impacted.
Science 37 derives a significant percentage of its revenues from a concentrated group of customers and the loss of one or more major customers could materially and adversely affect its business, results of operations or financial condition.
Science 37’s top five customers accounted for approximately 81.6% and 87.9% of its revenues in 2020 and 2019, respectively, and in 2020, Pharmaceutical Product Development, LLC accounted for 10% or more of Science 37’s total revenues. The loss of any of Science 37’s major customers could have a material adverse effect on its results of operations and financial condition. Science 37 may not be able to maintain its customer relationships, and its customers may delay payment under, or fail to renew, their agreements with it, which could adversely affect Science 37’s business, results of operations, or financial condition. Any reduction in the amount of revenues that Science 37 derives from these customers, without an offsetting
 
11

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
increase in new sales to other customers, could have a material adverse effect on Science 37’s operating results. A significant change in the liquidity or financial position of Science 37’s customers could also have a material adverse effect on the collectability of its accounts receivable, its liquidity, and its future operating results.
Additionally, conducting multiple clinical trials for different customers in a single therapeutic class involving drugs with the same or similar chemical method of action may in the future adversely affect Science 37’s business if some or all of the clinical trials are canceled because of new scientific information or regulatory judgments that affect the drugs as a class, or if industry consolidation results in the rationalization of drug development pipelines. Similarly, marketing and selling drugs for different biopharmaceutical companies with similar chemical methods of action subjects us to risk if new scientific information or regulatory judgment prejudices the drugs as a class, which may lead to compelled or voluntary prescription limitations or withdrawal of some or all of such drugs from the market.
Similarly, some or all of the clinical trials could be canceled as a result of successful development of other competing drugs; for example, further clinical development of vaccines to treat COVID-19 or another future pandemic disease could be slowed or canceled if the outbreak of such pandemic is deemed to have been adequately brought under control, such that further clinical development of vaccines is no longer necessary or desirable.
Litigation and other legal proceedings against Science 37, which may arise in the ordinary course of Science 37’s business, could be costly and time consuming to defend.
Science 37 is from time to time subject to legal proceedings and claims that arise in the ordinary course of business, such as claims brought by its customers in connection with commercial disputes and employment claims made by its current or former employees. From time to time, third parties have asserted and may in the future assert intellectual property rights to technologies that are important to Science 37’s business and have demanded and may in the future demand that we license their technology. Litigation may result in substantial costs and may divert management’s attention and resources, which may seriously harm Science 37’s business, overall financial condition and operating results. Insurance may not cover such claims, may not be sufficient for one or more such claims, and may not continue to be available on terms acceptable to Science 37. A claim brought against Science 37 that is uninsured or underinsured could result in unanticipated costs, negatively affecting Science 37’s business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Risks Related to the General Economic and Financial Market Conditions and the Industries in which Science 37 Operates
Science 37’s operations might be affected by the occurrence of natural disasters, pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, or other catastrophic events.
Science 37 depends on its customers, investigators and patients for the continued operation of its business. While Science 37 maintains disaster recovery and business continuity plans, they might not adequately protect Science 37. Despite any precautions Science 37 takes for natural disasters or other catastrophic events, these events, including terrorist attacks, hurricanes, fires, floods, ice and snowstorms, and pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, may result in interruptions in Science 37’s ability to provide services to its customers. Disruptions in infrastructure, laboratory, clinic or office closures, mandatory stay at home orders or other social distancing measures and disruptions caused by events such as natural disasters, or other “acts of God,” the outbreak of war, the escalation of hostilities and acts of terrorism or pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, could adversely affect Science 37’s businesses. Although Science 37 carries business interruption insurance policies and typically have provisions in its contracts that protect Science 37 from certain events, its coverage might not respond or be adequate to compensate Science 37 for all losses that may occur, including those relating to the COVID-19 pandemic. Any natural disaster or catastrophic event, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, affecting Science 37 or its customers, investigators, patients or infrastructure could have a significant negative impact on its operations or financial performance.
Science 37’s business could also be adversely affected by positive developments regarding, or the resolution of, the COVID-19 pandemic or another future pandemic. The various restrictions imposed by various government entities in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including social distancing and
 
12

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
“stay-at- home” orders, likely bolstered the level of decentralized clinical trial activity in 2020, which benefitted Science 37. As these restrictions are relaxed or lifted, there can be no assurance that the level of decentralized clinical trial activity will remain elevated. Additionally, in light of the COVID-19 pandemic and recent logistical technology developments, the FDA and European Medicines Agency (“EMA”) each issued guidance directing sponsors to implement DCT techniques in order to maintain study continuity, and endorsed DCT techniques as viable, long-term solutions for study design and evidence generation. If this guidance were to be retracted or if the FDA and/or EMA were to otherwise fail to continue promoting the use of DCT techniques, the level of decentralized trial activity could decrease. If the level of decentralized clinical trial activity decreases, Science 37’s business and results of operations would be adversely affected.
Science 37 faces significant competition, which could cause Science 37 to lose business or achieve lower margins.
The market for Science 37’s clinical trial solutions is intensely competitive and characterized by rapidly changing technologies, evolving industry standards, and frequent new product and service introductions and enhancements that may render existing products and services obsolete. Accordingly, Science 37’s market share and margins are subject to sudden declines. Some of Science 37’s competitors have longer operating histories, greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources, and greater name recognition than Science 37 does. These competitors may respond more quickly than Science 37 can to new and emerging technologies and changing customer and regulatory requirements, or devote greater resources to the development, promotion, and sale of their solutions. New competitors may enter Science 37’s market in the future, as barriers to entry are relatively low in its industry. Increased competition may result in pricing pressures, which could negatively impact Science 37’s sales, gross margins, or market share. In addition, current and potential competitors have established, and may in the future establish, relationships with vendors of complementary products, technologies, or services to increase the penetration of their products in the marketplace. Even if Science 37’s products and services are more effective than the products or service offerings of its competitors, current or potential customers might accept competitive products and services in lieu of purchasing its cloud-based solutions and services. Science 37’s failure to compete effectively could materially adversely affect its business, financial condition or results of operations.
Science 37 depends entirely on the clinical trial market, and a downturn in this market could cause its revenues to decrease.
Science 37’s business depends entirely on the clinical trials conducted or sponsored by pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device companies, CROs, and other entities. Science 37’s revenues may decline as a result of conditions affecting these industries, including general economic downturns, increased consolidation, decreased competition, or fewer products under development. Other developments that may affect these industries and harm Science 37’s operating results include, but are not limited to, product liability claims, changes in government regulation, changes in governmental price controls or third-party reimbursement practices, and changes in medical practices. Disruptions in the world credit and equity markets may also result in a global downturn in spending on research and development and clinical trials and may impact Science 37’s customers’ access to capital and their ability to pay for Science 37’s solutions. Any decrease in research and development expenditures or in the size, scope, or frequency of clinical trials could materially adversely affect Science 37’s business, results of operations, or financial condition.
Consolidation among Science 37’s customers may cause Science 37 to lose customers, decrease the market for its products and services and result in a reduction of its revenues.
Science 37’s customer base may decline because of industry consolidation, and Science 37 may not be able to expand sales of its products and services to new customers. Consolidation within the biopharmaceutical industry, including among CROs, has accelerated in recent years, and this trend may continue. In addition, new companies or organizations that result from such consolidation may decide that Science 37’s products and services are no longer needed because of their own internal processes or the use of alternative systems they have in place or may choose to develop or acquire. As these entities consolidate, competition to provide products and services to industry participants will become more intense and the importance of establishing relationships with large industry participants will become greater. These industry participants may try to use their market power to negotiate price reductions for Science 37’s products and services. If consolidation of larger current customers occurs, the combined organization may represent a larger percentage of business for
 
13

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Science 37 and, as a result, Science 37 is likely to rely more significantly on the combined organization’s revenues to continue to achieve growth. In addition, if large life sciences companies merge, it would have the potential to reduce per-unit pricing for Science 37’s products and services for the merged companies or to reduce demand for one or more of its products and services as a result of potential personnel reductions over time.
Outsourcing trends in the biopharmaceutical industry and changes in spending and research and development budgets could adversely affect Science 37’s operating results and growth rates.
Science 37 is dependent upon the ability and willingness of biopharmaceutical companies to continue to spend on research and development and to outsource the services that Science 37 provides. Science 37 is therefore subject to risks, uncertainties and trends that affect companies in the biopharmaceutical industry that Science 37 does not control. Science 37 has benefited to date from the tendency of biopharmaceutical companies to outsource clinical research projects. Any downturn in these industries or reduction in spending or outsourcing could materially adversely affect Science 37’s business. The following could each result in such a downturn:

if biopharmaceutical companies expanded upon their in-house clinical or development capabilities, they would be less likely to utilize Science 37’s services;

if governmental regulations were changed, it could affect the ability of its customers to operate profitably, which may lead to a decrease in research spending and therefore this could have a material adverse effect on its business; and

if unfavorable economic conditions or disruptions in the credit and equity capital markets negatively impacted its customers.
Science 37’s estimate of the market size for its products and services may prove to be inaccurate, and even if the market size is accurate, there can be no assurance that its business will serve a significant portion of the market.
Science 37’s estimate of the market size for its products and services that Science 37 has provided publicly, sometimes referred to as its serviceable addressable market (“SAM”), is subject to significant uncertainty and is based on assumptions and estimates, including Science 37’s internal analysis and industry experience, which may not prove to be accurate. These estimates are, in part, based upon the size of the general application areas Science 37 targets. Science 37’s ability to serve a significant portion of this estimated market is subject to many factors, including its success in implementing its business strategy, which is subject to many risks and uncertainties. For example, in order to address the entire SAM Science 37 has identified, Science 37 must continue to enhance and add functionality to its existing products and services and introduce new products and services. Accordingly, even if Science 37’s estimate of the market size is accurate, there can be no assurance that its business will serve a significant portion of this estimated market for its solutions.
Risks Related to Technology, Intellectual Property and Data Privacy
Science 37’s business depends on the continued effectiveness and availability of its information systems, including the information systems Science 37 uses to provide its services to its customers, and failures of these systems may materially limit its operations.
Due to the global nature of Science 37’s business and its reliance on information systems to provide its services, Science 37 has increased, and intend to continue to increase, its use of integrated information systems in delivering its services. Science 37 also provides access to similar information systems to certain of its customers in connection with the services Science 37 provides them. As the breadth and complexity of Science 37’s information systems continue to grow, it will increasingly be exposed to the risks inherent in the development, integration and ongoing operation of evolving information systems, including:

disruption, impairment, or failure of data centers, telecommunications facilities, or other key infrastructure platforms;
 
14

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

security breaches of, ransomware or other cyberattacks on, and other failures or malfunctions in Science 37’s critical application systems or their associated hardware; and

excessive costs, excessive delays, or other deficiencies in systems development and deployment.
The materialization of any of these risks may impede the processing of data, the delivery of databases and services, and the day-to-day management of Science 37’s business and could result in the corruption, loss, or unauthorized disclosure of proprietary, confidential, or other data. While Science 37 has disaster recovery plans in place, they might not adequately protect Science 37 in the event of a system failure. Despite any precautions Science 37 takes, damage from fire, floods, hurricanes, power loss, telecommunications failures, computer viruses, information system security breaches, and similar events at Science 37’s various computer facilities could result in interruptions in the flow of data to its servers and from its servers to its customers. Corruption or loss of data may result in the need to repeat a trial at no cost to the customer, but at significant cost to Science 37, or result in the termination of a contract or damage to its reputation. Additionally, significant delays in system enhancements or inadequate performance of new or upgraded systems once completed could damage Science 37’s reputation and harm its business. Finally, long-term disruptions in the infrastructure caused by events such as natural disasters, the outbreak of war, the escalation of hostilities and acts of terrorism, particularly involving cities in which Science 37 has offices, could adversely affect its business. Although Science 37 carries property and business interruption insurance, its coverage might not be adequate to compensate Science 37 for all losses that may occur.
A failure or breach of Science 37 or its vendors’ IT systems or technology could result in sensitive customer information being compromised or otherwise significantly disrupt its business operations, which would negatively materially affect its reputation and/or results of operations.
Science 37 increasingly relies on information technology systems to process, transmit and store electronic information. In the current environment, there are numerous and evolving risks to cybersecurity and privacy, including criminal hackers, hacktivists, state-sponsored intrusions, industrial espionage, employee malfeasance, and human or technological error. High-profile security breaches at other companies and in government agencies have increased in recent years, and security industry experts and government officials have warned about the risks of hackers and cyberattacks targeting businesses such as Science 37’s. Computer hackers and others routinely attempt to breach the security of technology products, services and systems, and to fraudulently induce employees, customers or others to disclose information or unwittingly provide access to systems or data. Science 37’s products and services involve the storage and transmission of its customers’ proprietary information (including personal or identifying information regarding their employees and the medical professionals whom their sales personnel contact, and sensitive proprietary data related to the clinical trial, regulatory submission and sales and marketing processes for medical treatments), personal information of medical professionals, personal information (which may include health information) of patients and clinical trial participants, and other sensitive information. Unauthorized disclosure of such sensitive or confidential data, whether through system failure or employee negligence, fraud, or misappropriation, could damage Science 37’s reputation and cause it to lose customers. Moreover, the risk of unauthorized circumvention of Science 37’s security measures or those of the third parties on whom it relies has been heightened by advances in computer and software capabilities and the increasing sophistication of hackers who employ complex techniques, including, without limitation, “phishing” or social engineering incidents, ransomware, extortion, account takeover attacks, denial or degradation of service attacks, and malware. Unauthorized access to or through Science 37’s information systems or those Science 37 develops for its customers, whether by its employees or third parties, including a cyberattack by computer programmers and hackers who may develop and deploy viruses, worms, or other malicious software programs, could cause several negative consequences, including the following, among others: negative publicity, loss of customer confidence, significant remediation costs, time-consuming and costly regulatory investigations, legal liability, and damage to Science 37’s reputation. Any of these could contribute to a loss of customers or substantial costs for Science 37, which could have a material adverse effect on Science 37’s results of operations. Additionally, the costs of mitigating cybersecurity risks are significant and are likely to increase in the future. These costs include, but are not limited to, retaining the services of cybersecurity providers; compliance costs arising out of existing and future cybersecurity, data protection and privacy laws and regulations; and costs related to maintaining redundant networks, data backups and other damage- mitigation measures. In addition, Science 37’s liability insurance might not be sufficient in type or amount to adequately
 
15

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
cover Science 37 against claims related to security breaches, cyberattacks and other related breaches, or the risk that the insurer will deny coverage of any future claim.
While Science 37 has certain cybersecurity safeguards in place designed to protect and preserve the integrity of Science 37’s information technology systems, due to the evolving nature of security threats and the potential negative consequences of a cybersecurity attack outlined above, the impact of any future incidents cannot be reasonably predicted. Science 37’s customers are also increasingly requiring cybersecurity protections and mandating cybersecurity standards in its products, and Science 37 may incur additional costs to comply with such demands. In addition, Science 37’s efforts to address a cybersecurity attack may not be successful, potentially resulting in the theft, loss, destruction or corruption of information Science 37 stores electronically, as well as unexpected interruptions, delays, or cessation of service. Any of these outcomes could cause serious harm to Science 37’s business operations and materially adversely affect its financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, some of Science 37’s vendors have significant responsibility for the security of certain of its data centers and computer-based platforms or software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) applications upon which Science 37’s businesses rely to host or process data or to perform various functions. Also, Science 37’s data suppliers have responsibility for security of their own computer and communications environments. These third parties face risks relating to cybersecurity similar to Science 37’s, which could disrupt their businesses and therefore materially impact Science 37’s. Accordingly, Science 37 is subject to any flaw in or breaches to its computer and communications systems or those that its vendors operate for Science 37, which could result in a material adverse effect on its business, operations and financial results.
Science 37’s products and services are subject to rapid technological changes and evolving industry standards. If Science 37 does not keep pace with rapid technological changes, its products and services may become less competitive or obsolete, which could have a material adverse effect on its business, results of operations and financial condition.
The biopharmaceutical industry generally, including the market for Science 37’s clinical trial products and services, is characterized by evolving industry standards and frequent new product and service introductions and enhancements. Science 37’s current competitors or other businesses might develop technologies or services that are more effective or commercially attractive than, or render obsolete, Science 37’s current or future technologies and services. If Science 37’s competitors introduce superior technologies or services and if Science 37 cannot make enhancements to remain competitive, its competitive position would be harmed. If Science 37 is unable to compete successfully, it may lose customers or be unable to attract new customers, which could lead to a decrease in its revenue and financial condition.
Science 37’s proprietary software may not operate properly, which could damage its reputation, give rise to claims against Science 37 or divert application of its resources from other purposes, any of which could harm Science 37’s business, results of operations and financial condition.
Proprietary software development is time-consuming, expensive and complex, and may involve unforeseen difficulties. Science 37 encounters technical obstacles from time to time, and it is possible that Science 37 may discover additional problems that prevent its proprietary applications from operating properly. If Science 37’s solution does not function reliably or fails to achieve customer expectations in terms of performance, customers could assert liability claims against Science 37 or attempt to cancel their contracts with Science 37. This could damage Science 37’s reputation and impair its ability to attract or maintain customers. Moreover, data services are complex and those Science 37 offers have in the past contained, and may in the future develop or contain, undetected defects or errors. Material performance problems, defects or errors in Science 37’s existing or new software-based products and services may arise in the future and may result from interface of Science 37’s solution with systems and data that it did not develop and the function of which is outside of its control or undetected in its testing. These defects and errors, and any failure by Science 37 to identify and address them, could result in loss of revenue or market share, diversion of development resources, harm to Science 37’s reputation and increased service and maintenance costs. Defects or errors may discourage existing or potential customers from purchasing its products or services from Science 37. Correction of defects or errors could prove to be impossible or impracticable. The costs incurred in correcting any defects or errors may be substantial and could have a material adverse effect on Science 37’s business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
16

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Science 37 has only a limited ability to protect its intellectual property rights, both domestically and internationally, and these rights are important to its success.
Science 37’s success depends, in part, upon its ability to develop, use and protect its proprietary methodologies, analytics, systems, technologies and other intellectual property. Science 37 relies upon a combination of trade secrets, confidentiality policies, nondisclosure, invention assignment and other contractual arrangements, and copyright, trademark, patent and trade secret laws, to protect its intellectual property rights. These laws are subject to change at any time and certain agreements may not be fully enforceable, which could further restrict Science 37’s ability to protect its innovations. Further, these laws may not provide adequate protection for Science 37’s intellectual property, particularly in countries in which the legal system provides less protection for intellectual property rights. For example, the laws of some foreign countries, especially certain developing countries with emerging economies in Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America, do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as federal and state laws in the United States. Science 37’s intellectual property rights may not prevent competitors from independently developing services similar to, or duplicative of, Science 37’s. For instance, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy or reverse engineer certain aspects of Science 37’s products that it considers proprietary or its proprietary information may otherwise become known or may be independently developed by its competitors or other third parties. Further, the steps Science 37 takes in this regard might not be adequate to prevent or deter infringement or other misappropriation of its intellectual property by competitors, former employees or other third parties, and Science 37 might not be able to detect unauthorized use of, or take appropriate and timely steps to enforce, its intellectual property rights. Enforcing Science 37’s rights might also require considerable time, money and oversight, and Science 37 may not be successful in enforcing its rights. It may not be possible to enforce intellectual property rights effectively in some countries at all or to the same extent as in the United States and other countries, and many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions.
Depending on the circumstances, Science 37 might need to grant a specific customer greater rights in intellectual property developed in connection with a contract than it otherwise would generally do. In certain situations, Science 37 might forgo all rights to the use of intellectual property it creates, which would limit its ability to reuse that intellectual property for other customers. Any limitation on Science 37’s ability to provide a service or solution could cause Science 37 to lose revenue generating opportunities and require Science 37 to incur additional expenses to develop or license new or modified solutions for future projects.
Science 37 may be subject to claims that it or its technologies infringe upon the intellectual property or other proprietary rights of a third party. Any such claims may require Science 37 to incur significant costs, to enter into royalty or licensing agreements, or to develop or license substitute technology.
Third parties may assert claims that Science 37’s technologies infringe upon their intellectual property or other proprietary rights. Science 37 cannot assure you that its cloud-based solutions and the technologies used in its product offerings do not infringe upon patents held by others or that they will not so infringe in the future. Any future claim of infringement could cause Science 37 to incur substantial costs defending against the claim, even if the claim is without merit, and could distract its management from its business. Moreover, any settlement or adverse judgment resulting from the claim could require Science 37 to pay substantial amounts or obtain a license to continue to use the technology that is the subject of the claim, or otherwise restrict or prohibit Science 37’s use of the technology. Any required licenses may not be available to Science 37 on acceptable terms, if at all. If Science 37 does not obtain any required licenses, it could encounter delays in product introductions if it attempts to design around the technology at issue or attempt to find another provider of suitable alternative technology to permit Science 37 to continue offering the applicable solution. In addition, Science 37 generally provides in its customer agreements that Science 37 will indemnify its customers against third-party infringement claims relating to its technology provided to the customer, which could obligate Science 37 to fund significant amounts. Infringement claims asserted against Science 37 or against its customers or other third parties that Science 37 is required or otherwise agree to indemnify may have a material adverse effect on its business, results of operations or financial condition.
 
17

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Confidentiality arrangements with employees and others may not adequately prevent disclosure of trade secrets and other proprietary information.
Science 37 has devoted substantial resources to the development of its technology, business operations and business plans. In order to protect Science 37’s trade secrets and proprietary information, Science 37 relies in significant part on confidentiality arrangements with its employees, licensees, independent contractors, advisors, reseller partners and customers. These arrangements may not be effective to prevent disclosure of confidential information, including trade secrets, and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. In addition, if others independently discover trade secrets and proprietary information, Science 37 would not be able to assert trade secret rights against such parties. Effective trade secret protection may not be available in every country in which Science 37’s products are available or where Science 37 has employees or independent contractors. The loss of trade secret protection could make it easier for third parties to compete with Science 37’s products by copying functionality. In addition, any changes in, or unexpected interpretations of, the trade secret and employment laws in any country in which Science 37 operates may compromise its ability to enforce its trade secret and intellectual property rights. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of Science 37’s proprietary rights, and failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection could adversely affect its competitive business position.
Science 37 may enter into collaborations, in-licensing arrangements, joint ventures, strategic alliances or partnerships with third parties that may not result in the development of commercially viable solutions or the generation of significant future revenues.
In the ordinary course of Science 37’s business, Science 37 may enter into collaborations, in-licensing arrangements, joint ventures, strategic alliances, partnerships or other arrangements to develop products and to pursue new markets. Proposing, negotiating and implementing collaborations, in-licensing arrangements, joint ventures, strategic alliances or partnerships may be a lengthy and complex process. Other companies, including those with substantially greater financial, marketing, sales, technology or other business resources, may compete with Science 37 for these opportunities or arrangements. Science 37 may not identify, secure, or complete any such transactions or arrangements in a timely manner, on a cost-effective basis, on acceptable terms or at all. Science 37 has limited institutional knowledge and experience with respect to these business development activities, and Science 37 may also not realize the anticipated benefits of any such transaction or arrangement. In particular, these collaborations may not result in the development of products that achieve commercial success or result in significant revenues and could be terminated prior to developing any products. Additionally, Science 37 may not own, or may jointly own with a third party, the intellectual property rights in products and other works developed under its collaborations, joint ventures, strategic alliances or partnerships.
Additionally, Science 37 may not be in a position to exercise sole decision making authority regarding the transaction or arrangement, which could create the potential risk of creating impasses on decisions, and its future collaborators may have economic or business interests or goals that are, or that may become, inconsistent with its business interests or goals. It is possible that conflicts may arise with Science 37’s collaborators, such as conflicts concerning the achievement of performance milestones, or the interpretation of significant terms under any agreement, such as those related to financial obligations or the ownership or control of intellectual property developed during the collaboration. If any conflicts arise with any future collaborators, they may act in their self-interest, which may be adverse to Science 37’s best interest, and they may breach their obligations to Science 37. In addition, Science 37 may have limited control over the amount and timing of resources that any future collaborators devote to Science 37’s or their future products. Disputes between Science 37 and its collaborators may result in litigation or arbitration which would increase Science 37’s expenses and divert the attention of its management. Further, these transactions and arrangements will be contractual in nature and will generally be terminable under the terms of the applicable agreements and, in such event, Science 37 may not continue to have rights to the products relating to such transaction or arrangement or may need to purchase such rights at a premium.
 
18

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Risks Related to Science 37’s Reliance on Third Parties
Science 37 relies on third parties for important products, services and licenses to certain technology and intellectual property rights, and there might be problems with such products or services or it might not be able to continue to obtain such products, services and licenses.
Science 37 depends on certain third parties to provide it with products and services critical to its business. Such third parties include, among others, suppliers of drugs for patients participating in trials; the nurses, investigators and coordinators involved in executing clinical trials; and common carriers to ship drugs and other products. The failure of even one of these third parties to adequately provide the required products or services, or to do so in compliance with applicable regulatory requirements, could have a material adverse effect on Science 37’s business. For example, a distributor could ship the wrong drug product to a patient, a common carrier could fail to properly adhere to the specific handling requirements of the drug product during shipping, or a mobile nurse could improperly administer the drug product to a patient. Any of these or other potential failures could result in patient harm or death, which could give rise to legal claims against Science 37, damage its reputation, or otherwise adversely affect its business, financial condition and results of operations.
Science 37 also relies on third-party platforms or marketplaces, including the Apple App Store and Google Play App Store, which serve as online distribution platforms for Science 37’s mobile application. As a result, the expansion and prospects of Science 37’s business and its mobile application depend on its continued relationships with these providers and any other emerging platform providers that are widely adopted by consumers. Science 37 is subject to the standard terms and conditions that these providers have for application developers, which govern the content, promotion, distribution and operation of mobile applications on their platforms or marketplaces, and which the providers can change unilaterally on short or no notice. Thus, Science 37’s business could suffer materially if platform providers change their standard terms and conditions, interpretations or other policies and practices in a way that is detrimental to Science 37 or if platform providers determine that Science 37 is in violation of its standard terms and conditions and prohibit it from distributing Science 37’s apps on their platforms.
In addition, Science 37’s business would be harmed if the providers discontinue or limit Science 37’s access to their platforms or marketplaces; the platforms or marketplaces decline in popularity; the platforms modify their algorithms, communication channels available to developers, respective terms of service or other policies, including fees; the providers adopt changes or updates to their technology that impede integration with other software systems or otherwise require Science 37 to modify its technology or update its mobile application in order to ensure that users can continue to access and use its services.
If alternative providers increase in popularity, Science 37 could be adversely impacted if it fails to create compatible versions of its mobile application in a timely manner, or if it fails to establish a relationship with such alternative providers. Likewise, if Science 37’s current providers alter their operating platforms, Science 37 could be adversely impacted as its offerings may not be compatible with the altered platforms or may require significant and costly modifications in order to become compatible. If Science 37’s providers do not perform their obligations in accordance with its platform agreements, Science 37 could be adversely impacted. In the past, some of these platforms or marketplaces have been unavailable for short periods of time. If this or a similar event were to occur on a short- or long-term basis, or if these platforms or marketplaces otherwise experience issues that impact the ability of consumers to download or access Science 37’s mobile application and other information, it could have a material adverse effect on Science 37’s brand and reputation, as well as its business, financial condition and operating results.
Some of Science 37’s services rely on intellectual property, technology and other similar property owned and/or controlled by third parties. Science 37’s licenses to this property and technology could terminate or expire and Science 37 might not be able to replace these licenses in a timely manner. Also, Science 37 might not be able to renew these licenses on similar terms and conditions. Failure to renew these licenses, or renewals of these licenses on less advantageous terms, could have a material adverse effect on Science 37’s business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flow.
 
19

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Science 37 relies on third parties to provide certain data and other information to Science 37. Science 37’s suppliers or providers might increase its cost to obtain, restrict its use of, or refuse to license data, which could lead to its inability to access certain data or provide certain services and, as a result, materially and adversely affect its operating results and financial condition.
Science 37’s services are derived from, or include, the use of data Science 37 collects from third parties. Science 37 has several data suppliers that provide Science 37 a broad and diverse scope of information that Science 37 collects and uses in its business. Science 37 generally enters into long-term contractual arrangements with many of its data suppliers. At the time Science 37 enters into a new data supply contract or renew an existing contract, suppliers may increase its cost to obtain and use the data provided by such supplier, increase restrictions on its ability to use such data, or altogether refuse to license the data to Science 37. Also, Science 37’s data suppliers may fail to meet or adhere to Science 37’s quality control standards or fail to deliver the data to Science 37. If suppliers that collectively provide a significant amount of the data Science 37 receives or uses were to increase its costs to obtain or use such data, further restrict its access to or use of such data, fails to meet or adhere to its quality control standards, refuses to provide data, or fails to deliver data to Science 37, its ability to provide data-dependent services to Science 37’s customers may be adversely impacted, which could have a material adverse effect on its business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flow.
Science 37’s products and services utilize open source software, and any failure to comply with the terms of one or more of these open source licenses could adversely affect its business.
Science 37’s products and services utilize software covered by open source licenses. Open source software is typically freely accessible, usable and modifiable, and is used by Science 37’s development team in an effort to reduce development costs and speed up the development process. Certain open source software licenses require a user who intends to distribute the open source software as a component of the user’s software to disclose publicly part or all of the source code to the user’s software. In addition, certain open source software licenses require the user of such software to make any derivative works of the open source code available to others on unfavorable terms or at no cost. This can subject previously proprietary software to open source license terms. While Science 37 monitors the use of all open source software in Science 37’s products, processes and technology and try to ensure that no open source software is used in such a way as to require Science 37 to disclose or make available the source code to the related product or solution, such use could inadvertently occur. This could harm Science 37’s intellectual property position and have a material adverse effect on its business.
Risks Related to Political, Legal and Regulatory Environment
Science 37 may face political, legal and compliance, operational, regulatory, economic and other risks associated with the international expansion of its operations that Science 37 does not currently face or that are more significant than in its domestic operations.
As Science 37 expands its operations into new international geographic areas, Science 37 may be subject to political, legal and compliance, operational, regulatory, economic and other risks that it does not face or that are more significant than in Science 37’s domestic operations. These risks may vary widely by country and include varying regional and geopolitical business conditions and demands, government intervention and censorship, discriminatory regulation, nationalization or expropriation of assets and pricing constraints. Science 37’s future international services and products may need to meet country-specific user preferences as well as country-specific legal requirements, including those related to healthcare regulatory laws governing telemedicine, licensing, privacy, data storage, location, protection and security. The interpretation of these laws is evolving and varies significantly from country to county and are enforced by governmental, judicial and regulatory authorities with broad discretion. Science 37 cannot be certain that its interpretation of such laws and regulations will be correct in how Science 37 plans to structure its international operations, as well as its international services agreements and customer arrangements.
Science 37’s international operations may require it to overcome logistical and other challenges based on differing languages, cultures, legal and regulatory schemes and time zones. Science 37’s international operations may encounter labor laws, customs and employee relationships that can be difficult, less flexible
 
20

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
than in its domestic operations and expensive to modify or terminate. In some countries Science 37 may be required to, or choose to, operate with local business partners, which will require Science 37 to manage its partner relationships and may reduce its operational flexibility and ability to quickly respond to business challenges.
Science 37’s international operations may be subject to particular risks in addition to those faced by its domestic operations, including:

the need to localize and adapt its solution for specific countries, including translation into foreign languages and associated expenses;

potential loss of proprietary information due to misappropriation or laws that may be less protective of its intellectual property rights than U.S. laws or that may not be adequately enforced;

requirements of foreign laws and other governmental controls, including cross-border compliance challenges related to the complexity of multiple, conflicting and changing governmental laws and regulations, including employment, healthcare, tax, privacy and data protection laws and regulations;

requirements of foreign laws and other governmental controls applicable to its ability to conduct telehealth internationally, specifically laws governing remote care and the practice of medicine in such locations;

data privacy laws that require that customer data be stored and processed in a designated territory;

new and different sources of competition and laws and business practices favoring local competitors;

local business and cultural factors that differ from its normal standards and practices, including business practices that Science 37 is prohibited from engaging in by the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (“FCPA”) and other anti-corruption laws and regulations;

changes to export controls and economic sanctions laws and regulations;

central bank and other restrictions on its ability to repatriate cash from international subsidiaries;

tax issues, such as tax law changes and variations in tax laws as compared to the United States;

fluctuations in currency exchange rates, economic instability and inflationary conditions, which could make its solution more expensive or increase its costs of doing business in certain countries;

limitations on future growth or inability to maintain current levels of revenues from international sales if Science 37 does not invest sufficiently in its international operations;

different pricing environments, longer sales cycles and longer accounts receivable payment cycles and collections issues;

difficulties in staffing, managing and operating its international operations, including difficulties related to administering its stock plans in some foreign countries and increased financial accounting and reporting requirements and complexities;

difficulties in coordinating the activities of its geographically dispersed and culturally diverse operations; and

political unrest, war, terrorism or regional natural disasters, particularly in areas in which Science 37 has facilities.
Science 37’s overall success regarding its operations in international markets will depend, in part, on its ability to anticipate and effectively manage these risks and there can be no assurance that Science 37 will be able to do so without incurring unexpected costs. If Science 37 is not able to manage the risks related to its international operations, Science 37 may not achieve the expected benefits of these operations and its business, financial condition and results of operations may be harmed.
Due to the global nature of Science 37’s business, Science 37 may be exposed to liabilities under anti-corruption laws, including the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the United Kingdom Bribery Act (the “UK Bribery Act”) and various international anti-corruption laws, and any allegation or determination that Science 37 violated these laws could have a material adverse effect on its business.
Science 37 is required to comply with the FCPA, the UK Bribery Act and other international anti-corruption laws, which prohibit companies from engaging in bribery including corruptly or improperly
 
21

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
offering, promising, or providing money or anything else of value to non-United States officials and certain other recipients. In addition, the FCPA imposes certain books, records, and accounting control obligations on public companies and other issuers. Science 37 operates in parts of the world in which corruption can be common and compliance with anti-bribery laws may conflict with local customs and practices. Science 37’s global operations face the risk of unauthorized payments or offers being made by employees, consultants, sales agents, and other business partners outside of Science 37’s control or without its authorization. It is Science 37’s policy to implement safeguards to prohibit these practices by its employees and business partners with respect to its operations. However, irrespective of these safeguards, or as a result of monitoring compliance with such safeguards, it is possible that Science 37 or certain other parties may discover or receive information at some point that certain employees, consultants, sales agents, or other business partners may have engaged in corrupt conduct for which Science 37 might be held responsible. Violations of the FCPA, the UK Bribery Act or other international anti-corruption laws may result in restatements of, or irregularities in, Science 37’s financial statements as well as severe criminal or civil sanctions, and Science 37 may be subject to other liabilities, which could negatively affect its business, operating results and financial condition. In some cases, companies that violate the FCPA may be debarred by the United States government and/or lose their United States export privileges. Changes in anti-corruption laws or enforcement priorities could also result in increased compliance requirements and related costs which could adversely affect Science 37’s business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, the United States or other governments may seek to hold Science 37 liable for successor liability FCPA violations or violations of other anti-corruption laws committed by companies in which Science 37 invests or that Science 37 acquired or will acquire.
Science 37’s employees may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements, which could have a material adverse effect on its business.
Science 37 is exposed to the risk of employee fraud or other misconduct. Misconduct by employees could include intentional failures to comply with governmental regulations, comply with federal and state health-care fraud and abuse laws and regulations, report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to Science 37. In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, kickbacks, self- dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Employee misconduct could also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical studies or data or documentation fraud or manipulation, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to Science 37’s reputation. It is not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and the precautions Science 37 takes to detect and prevent misconduct may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting Science 37 from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with such laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against Science 37, and Science 37 is not successful in defending itself or asserting its rights, those actions could have a significant impact on Science 37’s business and results of operations, including the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions.
If Science 37 fails to comply with certain healthcare laws, including fraud and abuse laws, Science 37 could face substantial penalties and its business, results of operations, financial condition, and prospects could be adversely affected.
Even though Science 37 does not order healthcare services or bill directly to Medicare, Medicaid or other third-party payors, certain federal and state healthcare laws and regulations pertaining to fraud and abuse are and will be applicable to Science 37’s business. Science 37 could be subject to healthcare fraud and abuse laws of both the federal government and the states in which Science 37 conducts its business. Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of available statutory and regulatory exceptions, it is possible that some of Science 37’s business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws.
If Science 37 or its operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to Science 37, Science 37 may be subject to penalties, including civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, imprisonment, and the curtailment or restructuring of Science 37’s operations, any of which could materially adversely affect its ability to operate its business and its financial results.
 
22

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Extensive governmental regulation of the clinical trial process and Science 37’s products and services could require significant compliance costs and have a material adverse effect on the demand for its solutions.
The clinical trial process is subject to extensive and strict regulation by the FDA, EMA and other regulatory authorities worldwide. Science 37’s products and services are also subject to state, federal and foreign regulations. Demand for Science 37’s products is largely a function of such government regulation, which is subject to change at any time. Changes in the level of regulation, including a relaxation in regulatory requirements or the introduction of simplified drug approval procedures, could have a material adverse effect on the demand for Science 37’s products or services. Proposals to place caps on drug prices could limit the profitability of existing or planned drug development programs, making investment in new drugs and therapies less attractive to pharmaceutical companies. Similarly, the requirements in the United States, the European Union, the Asia Pacific region, and elsewhere to create a detailed registry of all clinical trials could have an impact on customers’ willingness to perform certain clinical studies. In addition, the uncertainty surrounding the possible adoption and impact on health care of any Good Clinical Practice (“GCP”) reforms could cause Science 37’s customers to delay planned research and development until some of these uncertainties are resolved.
Modifying Science 37’s products and services to comply with changes in regulations or regulatory guidance could require Science 37 to incur substantial costs. Further, changing regulatory requirements may render Science 37’s solutions obsolete or make new products or services more costly or time consuming than Science 37 currently anticipates. Failure by Science 37, its customers or its competitors to comply with applicable regulations could result in increased regulatory scrutiny and enforcement. If Science 37’s solutions fail to comply with government regulations or guidelines, Science 37 could incur significant liability or be forced to cease offering or using Science 37’s applicable products or services. If Science 37’s products or services fail to allow its customers to comply with applicable regulations or guidelines, customers may be unwilling to use its products or services and any such non-compliance could result in the termination of or additional costs arising from contracts with its customers.
Science 37 is subject to a variety of privacy and data security laws, and its failure to comply with them could have a materially adverse impact on its business.
Science 37’s products and services involve the storage and transmission of its customers’ personal information regarding their employees and the medical professionals whom their sales personnel contact, personal information of medical professionals, personal information (which may include health information) of patients and clinical trial participants, and other sensitive information. In the United States, there are numerous federal and state privacy and data security laws and regulations governing the collection, use, disclosure and protection of such information, including federal and state health information privacy laws, federal and state security breach notification laws, and federal and state consumer protection laws. In addition, Science 37 may obtain health information from third parties (including research institutions from which it obtains clinical trial data) that are subject to privacy and security requirements under HIPAA, as amended by HITECH and regulations promulgated thereunder.
In the European Economic Area (the “EEA”), Science 37 is subject to the EU General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”) which took effect in May 2018. The GDPR governs the collection, use, disclosure, transfer or other processing of personal data (i.e., data which identifies an individual or from which an individual is identifiable), including clinical trial data, and grants individuals various data protection rights (e.g., the right to erasure of personal data). The GDPR imposes a number of obligations on companies, including, inter alia: (i) accountability and transparency requirements, and enhanced requirements for obtaining valid consent; (ii) obligations to consider data protection as new products or services are developed and to limit the amount of personal data processed; and (iii) obligations to implement appropriate technical and organizational measures to safeguard personal data and to report certain personal data breaches to the supervisory authority without undue delay (and no later than 72 hours where feasible). In addition, the GDPR prohibits the transfer of personal data from the EEA to the United States and other jurisdictions that the European Commission does not recognize as having “adequate” data protection laws unless a data transfer mechanism has been put in place. In July 2020, the Court of Justice of the EU (“CJEU”) limited how organizations could lawfully transfer personal data from the EEA to the United States by invalidating the EU-US Privacy Shield for purposes of international transfers and imposing further restrictions on use of
 
23

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
the standard contractual clauses (“SCCs”). These restrictions include a requirement for companies to carry out a transfer privacy impact assessment which, among other things, assesses the laws governing access to personal data in the recipient country and considers whether supplementary measures that provide privacy protections additional to those provided under SCCs will need to be implemented to ensure an essentially equivalent level of data protection to that afforded in the EEA. The European Commission issued revised SCCs on June 4, 2021 to account for the decision of the CJEU and recommendations made by the European Data Protection Board. The GDPR imposes substantial fines for breaches and violations (up to the greater of €20 million or 4% of consolidated annual worldwide gross revenue), and confers a private right of action on data subjects and consumer associations to lodge complaints with supervisory authorities, seek judicial remedies and obtain compensation for damages resulting from violations of the GDPR. Relatedly, following the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the EU (i.e., Brexit), and the expiry of the Brexit transition period, which ended on December 31, 2020, the GDPR has been implemented in the United Kingdom (as the “UK GDPR”). The UK GDPR sits alongside the UK Data Protection Act 2018 which implements certain derogations in the GDPR into UK law. Under the UK GDPR, companies not established in the UK but who process personal data in relation to the offering of goods or services to individuals in the UK, or to monitor their behavior, will be subject to the UK GDPR — the requirements of which are (at this time) largely aligned with those under the GDPR and as such, may lead to similar compliance and operational costs with potential fines of up to £17.5 million or 4% of global turnover. Further, while transfers of personal data from the UK to the EEA are unrestricted and do not require additional safeguards, as regards transfers of personal data from the EEA to the UK, under the terms of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement agreed between the EU and the UK on December 24, 2020, such data flows only remain unrestricted until the end of June 2021, provided the UK makes no substantive changes to its data protection laws. The European Commission has published a draft “adequacy decision” for the UK according to which, if adopted, transfers of personal data from the EU to the UK would continue unrestricted and would not require any additional safeguards. However, it is not clear when this decision may become effective and to the extent the decision, in its current form, is not adopted, data transfer mechanisms such as the SCCs will be required for transfer of personal data from the EEA to the UK. If Science 37 is required to implement additional measures to transfer data from the EEA to the UK or other third countries, this could increase its compliance costs, and could adversely affect its business, financial condition and results of operations.
Compliance with these and any other applicable privacy and data security laws and regulations is a rigorous and time-intensive process, and Science 37 may be required to put in place additional mechanisms ensuring compliance with the new data protection rules. Furthermore, the laws are not consistent, and compliance in the event of a widespread data breach is costly. In addition, states are constantly adopting new laws or amending existing laws, requiring attention to frequently changing regulatory requirements. For example, California enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”), which took effect on January 1, 2020, became enforceable by the California Attorney General on July 1, 2020, and has been dubbed the first “GDPR-like” law in the United States. The CCPA gives California residents expanded rights to access and delete their personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used by requiring covered companies to provide new disclosures to California consumers (as that term is broadly defined) and provide such consumers new ways to opt-out of certain sales of personal information. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation. Further, the California Privacy Rights Act (the “CPRA”) recently passed in California. The CPRA will impose additional data protection obligations on companies doing business in California, including additional consumer rights processes, limitations on data uses, new audit requirements for higher risk data, and opt outs for certain uses of sensitive data. It will also create a new California data protection agency authorized to issue substantive regulations and could result in increased privacy and information security enforcement. The majority of the provisions will go into effect on January 1, 2023, and additional compliance investment and potential business process changes may be required. Although the CCPA currently exempts certain health-related information, including clinical trial data, the CCPA and the CPRA may increase our compliance costs and potential liability. The Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act was also recently passed and is scheduled to take effect on January 1, 2023. Similar laws have been proposed in other states, at the federal level and in other countries, and if passed, such laws may have potentially conflicting requirements that would make compliance challenging.
 
24

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Any actual or perceived failure by Science 37 to comply with applicable privacy and data security laws and regulations could result in regulatory investigations, reputational damage, orders to cease/change Science 37’s processing of its data, enforcement notices, and/or assessment notices (for a compulsory audit). Science 37 may also face civil claims including representative actions and other class action-type litigation (where individuals have suffered harm), potentially amounting to significant compensation or damages liabilities, as well as associated costs, diversion of internal resources, and reputational harm.
Changes in U.S. tax laws, and the adoption of tax reform policies or changes in tax legislation or policies in jurisdictions outside of the United States, could adversely affect Science 37’s operating results and financial condition.
Science 37 is subject to federal and state income and non-income taxes in the United States. Tax laws, regulations, and administrative practices in various jurisdictions may be subject to significant change, with or without notice, due to economic, political, and other conditions, and significant judgment is required in evaluating and estimating these taxes. Science 37’s effective tax rates could be affected by numerous factors, such as entry into new businesses and geographies, changes to Science 37’s existing business and operations, acquisitions and investments and how they are financed, changes in its stock price, changes in its deferred tax assets and liabilities and their valuation, and changes in the relevant tax, accounting, and other laws, regulations, administrative practices, principles and interpretations. Science 37 is required to take positions regarding the interpretation of complex statutory and regulatory tax rules and on valuation matters that are subject to uncertainty, and tax authorities may challenge the positions that Science 37 takes.
Certain U.S. state and local tax authorities may assert that Science 37 has a nexus with such states or localities and may seek to impose state and local income taxes on its income allocated to such state and localities.
There is a risk that certain state tax authorities where Science 37 does not currently file a state income tax return could assert that Science 37 is liable for state and local income taxes based upon income or gross receipts allocable to such states or localities. States and localities are becoming increasingly aggressive in asserting nexus for state and local income tax purposes. Science 37 could be subject to additional state and local income taxation, including penalties and interest attributable to prior periods, if a state or local tax authority in a state or locality where Science 37 does not currently file an income tax return successfully asserts that Science 37’s activities give rise to nexus for state income tax purposes. Such tax assessments, penalties and interest may adversely affect Science 37’s cash tax liabilities, results of operations and financial condition.
Taxing authorities may successfully assert that Science 37 should have collected or in the future should collect sales and use or similar taxes for its services which could adversely affect Science 37’s results of operations.
State taxing authorities may assert that Science 37 had economic nexus with their state and were required to collect sales and use or similar taxes with respect to past or future services that Science 37 has provided or will provide, which could result in tax assessments and penalties and interest. The assertion of such taxes against Science 37 for past services, or any requirement that Science 37 collect sales taxes on the provision of future services, could have a material adverse effect on its business, cash tax liabilities, results of operations, and financial condition.
Science 37’s ability to use net operating losses to offset future income may be subject to certain limitations.
As of December 31, 2020, Science 37 had NOLs to offset future taxable income of approximately $103,569,264, of which approximately $30,230,297 will begin to expire in 2034, if not utilized. A lack of future taxable income would adversely affect Science 37’s ability to utilize these NOLs. In addition, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-change NOLs and other pre-change tax attributes (such as research tax credits) to offset post-change taxable income. For these purposes, an ownership change generally occurs where the equity ownership of one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who owns at least 5% of a corporation’s stock increases its ownership by more than 50 percentage points over its lowest ownership percentage within a three-year period (calculated on a rolling basis). Science 37’s existing NOLs may be subject limitations arising out of previous ownership changes
 
25

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
and Science 37 may be limited as to the amount that can be utilized each year as a result of such previous ownership changes. In addition, future changes in Science 37’s stock ownership, including future offerings, as well as other changes that may be outside of its control, could result in additional ownership changes under Section 382 of the Code. Science 37’s NOLs may also be impaired under similar provisions of state law. Science 37 has not completed a formal study to determine if any ownership changes within the meaning of Sections 382 and 383 of the Code have occurred. If such ownership change has occurred, Science 37’s ability to use its NOLs or tax credit carryforwards may be restricted, which could require Science 37 to pay federal or state income taxes earlier than would be required if such limitations were not in effect. Science 37 has recorded a full valuation allowance related to its NOLs and other deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty of the ultimate realization of the future benefits of those assets.
In addition to the limitations discussed above under Sections 382 of the Code, the utilization of NOLs incurred in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, are subject to limitations adopted by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted in 2017 (the “TCJA”), as modified by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act enacted in March 2020 (the “CARES Act”). Under the TCJA, in general, NOLs generated in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 may offset no more than 80% of such year’s taxable income and there is no ability for such NOLs to be carried back to a prior taxable year. The CARES Act modifies the TCJA with respect to the TCJA’s limitation on the deduction of NOLs and provides that NOLs arising in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2021, may be carried back to each of the five taxable years preceding the tax year of such loss, but NOLs arising in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020 may not be carried back. In addition, the CARES Act eliminates the limitation on the deduction of NOLs to 80% of current year taxable income for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2021. As a result of such limitation, Science 37 may be required to pay federal income tax in some future year notwithstanding that it had a net loss for all years in the aggregate.
Science 37’s reported financial results may be adversely affected by changes in accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.
U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”), the SEC, and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on Science 37’s reported results of operations and could affect the reporting of transactions already completed before the announcement of such change.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock Following the Business Combination and to Operating as a Public Company
Science 37 expects to incur increased costs and obligations as a result of being a public company.
As a public company, we will incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that Science 37 does not incur as a private company. For example, we will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and will be required to comply with the applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, as well as rules and regulations of the SEC and Nasdaq, including the establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls, changes in corporate governance practices and required filing of annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and results of operations. Any failure to develop or maintain effective controls or any difficulties encountered in their implementation or improvement could harm our results of operations or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. We expect that compliance with these requirements will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. In addition, we expect that our management and other personnel will need to divert attention from operational and other business matters to devote substantial time to these public company requirements. In particular, we expect to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (“Section 404”), which will increase when we are no longer an emerging growth company.
 
26

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
We also expect that operating as a public company will make it more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. This could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified people to serve on our board of directors, our board committees or as executive officers.
We anticipate that our operations will continue to increase in complexity as we grow, which will create management challenges.
Science 37’s business has experienced strong growth and is complex. Following the Business Combination, this growth is expected to continue, and our operations will become increasingly complex. To manage this growth, we will make substantial investments to improve our operational, financial, and management controls as well as our reporting systems and procedures. We may not be able to implement and scale improvements to our systems and processes in a timely or efficient manner or in a manner that does not negatively affect our operating results. For example, we may not be able to effectively monitor certain extraordinary contract requirements or individually negotiated provisions as the number of customers continues to grow. Our systems and processes may not prevent or detect all errors, omissions, or fraud. We may have difficulty managing improvements to our systems, processes and controls or in connection with third-party software. This could impair our ability to provide our products and services to our customers, causing us to lose customers, limiting products and services to less significant updates, or increasing technical support costs. If we are unable to manage this complexity, our business, operations, operating results and financial condition may suffer.
As our customer base continues to grow, we will need to expand our services and other personnel, and maintain and enhance our partnerships to provide a high level of customer service. Extended stay-at-home, business closure, and other restrictive orders may impact our ability to identify, hire, and train new personnel. We will also need to manage our sales processes as our sales personnel and partner network continue to grow and become more complex, and as we continue to expand into new geographies and market segments. If we do not effectively manage this increasing complexity, the quality of our operating system and customer service could suffer, and we may not be able to adequately address competitive challenges. These factors could impair the ability to attract and retain customers and expand customers’ use of our products and services.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud. As a result, our stockholders could lose confidence in our financial and other public reporting, which would harm our business and the trading price of our common stock.
Effective internal control over financial reporting is necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and, together with adequate disclosure controls and procedures, is designed to prevent fraud. Any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation, could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. In addition, any testing by us, as and when required, conducted in connection with Section 404 or any subsequent testing by our independent registered public accounting firm, as and when required, may reveal deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be significant deficiencies or material weaknesses or that may require prospective or retroactive changes to our financial statements or identify other areas for further attention or improvement. Inferior internal controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our common stock.
Pursuant to Section 404, we will be required to furnish a report by our management on our internal control over financial reporting. To achieve compliance with Section 404 within the prescribed period, we will be engaged in a process to document and evaluate our internal control over financial reporting, which is both costly and challenging. In this regard, we will need to dedicate internal resources, potentially engage outside consultants and adopt a detailed work plan to assess and document the adequacy of internal control over financial reporting, take steps to improve control processes as appropriate, validate through testing that controls are functioning as documented and implement a continuous reporting and improvement process for internal control over financial reporting. Despite our efforts, there is a risk that neither we, nor our independent registered public accounting firm will be able to conclude within the prescribed timeframe that
 
27

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
our internal control over financial reporting is effective as required by Section 404. This could result in an adverse reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of confidence in the reliability of our financial statements.
Science 37’s management has limited experience in operating a public company.
Science 37’s executive officers have limited experience in the management of a publicly traded company. Science 37’s management team may not successfully or effectively manage its transition to a public company that will be subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under federal securities laws. Their limited experience in dealing with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies could be a significant disadvantage in that it is likely that an increasing amount of their time may be devoted to these activities which will result in less time being devoted to our management and growth. We may not have adequate personnel with the appropriate level of knowledge, experience and training in the accounting policies, practices or internal controls over financial reporting required of public companies in the United States. The development and implementation of the standards and controls necessary for us to achieve the level of accounting standards required of a public company in the United States may require costs greater than expected. It is possible that we will be required to expand our employee base and hire additional employees to support our operations as a public company which will increase our operating costs in future periods.
Subsequent to the consummation of the Business Combination, we may be required to take writedowns or write-offs, or we may be subject to restructuring, impairment or other charges that could have a significant negative effect on our financial condition, results of operations and the price of our Common Stock, which could cause you to lose some or all of your investment.
Although we have conducted due diligence on Science 37, this diligence may not surface all material issues that may be present with Science 37’s business. Factors outside of our control may, at any time, arise. As a result of these factors, we may be forced to later write-down or write-off assets, restructure our operations or incur impairment or other charges that could result in us reporting losses.
Even if our due diligence successfully identified certain risks, unexpected risks may arise, and previously known risks may materialize in a manner not consistent with our preliminary risk analysis. Even though these charges may be non-cash items and therefore not have an immediate impact on our liquidity, the fact that we report charges of this nature could contribute to negative market perceptions about us or our securities. In addition, charges of this nature may cause us to be unable to obtain future financing on favorable terms or at all.
Because we became a public reporting company by means other than a traditional underwritten initial public offering, our stockholders may face additional risks and uncertainties.
Because we became a public reporting company by means of consummating the Business Combination rather than by means of a traditional underwritten initial public offering, there was no independent third-party underwriter selling the shares of our common stock, and, accordingly, our stockholders did not have the benefit of an independent review and investigation of the type normally performed by an unaffiliated, independent underwriter in a public securities offering. Due diligence reviews typically include an independent investigation of the background of the company, any advisors and their respective affiliates, review of the offering documents and independent analysis of the plan of business and any underlying financial assumptions. Because there was no independent third-party underwriter selling the shares of our common stock, stockholders had to rely on the information included in LSAQ’s proxy statement/prospectus. Although LSAQ performed a due diligence review and investigation of Science 37 in connection with the Business Combination, the lack of an independent due diligence review and investigation increases the risk of investment in us because it may not have uncovered facts that would be important to a potential investor.
In addition, because we did not become a public reporting company by means of a traditional underwritten initial public offering, security or industry analysts may not provide, or be less likely to provide, coverage of us. Investment banks may also be less likely to agree to underwrite secondary offerings on behalf of us than they might be if we had become a public reporting company by means of a traditional underwritten initial public offering, because they may be less familiar with us as a result of more limited
 
28

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
coverage by analysts and the media. The failure to receive research coverage or support in the market for our common stock could have an adverse effect on our ability to develop a liquid market for our common stock. See “— If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about us, or publish negative reports, our stock price and trading volume could decline.”
There can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of Nasdaq.
There can be no assurances that we will be able to maintain the listing of our common stock on the Nasdaq in the future. If we fail to maintain the listing, and if Nasdaq or another national securities exchange does not list our common stock on its exchange, our stockholders could face significant material adverse consequences, including:

a limited availability of market quotations for our common stock;

reduced liquidity for our common stock;

a determination that our common stock is a “penny stock” which will require brokers to adhere to more stringent rules and possibly result in a reduced level of trading activity

in the secondary trading market for our common stock;

a limited amount of news and analyst coverage; and

a decreased ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future.
The National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996, which is a federal statute, prevents or preempts the states from regulating the sale of certain securities, which are referred to as “covered securities.” If our common stock were not listed on the Nasdaq, such securities would not qualify as covered securities and we would be subject to regulation in each state in which it offers securities because states are not preempted from regulating the sale of securities that are not covered securities.
The Sponsor, existing stockholders of Science 37 and the PIPE Investors beneficially own a significant equity interest in us and may take actions that conflict with your interests.
The interests of the Sponsor, pre-Business Combination stockholders of Science 37 and the PIPE Investors may not align with the interests of us and our other stockholders. The Sponsor, certain pre-Business Combination stockholders of Science 37 and the PIPE Investors are each in the business of making investments in companies and may acquire and hold interests in businesses that compete directly or indirectly with us. The Sponsor, pre-Business Combination stockholders of Science 37 and the PIPE Investors, and their respective affiliates, may also pursue acquisition opportunities that may be complementary to our business and, as a result, those acquisition opportunities may not be available.
Our ability to timely raise capital in the future may be limited, or may be unavailable on acceptable terms, if at all. The failure to raise capital when needed could harm our business, operating results and financial condition. Debt or equity issued to raise additional capital may reduce the value of our common stock.
We cannot be certain when or if our operations will generate sufficient cash to fund its ongoing operations or the growth of our business. We intend to make investments to support Science 37’s current business and may require additional funds to respond to business challenges, including the need to develop new features or enhance its software, improve its operating infrastructure or acquire complementary businesses and technologies. Additional financing may not be available on favorable terms, if at all. If adequate funds are not available on acceptable terms, we may be unable to invest in future growth opportunities, which could harm our business, operating results and financial condition. If we incur debt, the debt holders could have rights senior to holders of shares of our common stock to make claims on our assets. The terms of any debt could restrict our operations, including our ability to pay dividends on our common stock. If we issue additional equity securities, stockholders will experience dilution, and the new equity securities could have rights senior to those of our common stock. Because the decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on numerous considerations, including factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of any future issuances of debt or equity securities. As a result, stockholders
 
29

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
will bear the risk of future issuances of debt or equity securities reducing the value of their shares of our common stock and diluting their interest.
We may issue additional shares of common stock or other equity securities without your approval, which would dilute your ownership interests and may depress the market price of your shares.
We may issue additional shares of our common stock or other equity securities of equal or senior rank in the future in connection with, among other things, future acquisitions or repayment of indebtedness that may be outstanding at such time or under our 2021 Plan and our ESPP, without stockholder approval, in a number of circumstances.
Our issuance of additional shares of our common stock or other equity securities of equal or senior rank could have the following effects:

your proportionate ownership interest in us will decrease;

the relative voting strength of each previously outstanding share of our common stock may be diminished; or

the market price of shares of our common stock may decline.
The market price of our common stock is likely to be highly volatile. If the benefits of the Merger do not meet the expectations of investors, stockholders or financial analysts, the market price of our common stock may decline, and you may lose some or all of your investment.
If the benefits of the Merger do not meet the expectations of investors, stockholders or securities analysts, the market price of our common stock following the Closing may decline. Accordingly, the valuation ascribed to the Science 37 business and LSAQ common stock in the Merger may not be indicative of the price that will prevail in the trading market following the consummation of the Merger.
If an active market for our common stock develops, the trading price of our common stock following the consummation of the Merger could be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations. The trading price of our common stock will depend on many factors, including those described in this “Risk Factors” section, many of which will be beyond our control and may not be related to our operating performance. These fluctuations could cause you to lose all or part of your investment in our common stock since you might be unable to sell your shares at or above the price you paid for them. Any of the factors listed below could have a material adverse effect on your investment in our common stock, which may trade at prices significantly below the price you paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of our common stock may not recover and may experience a further decline.
Factors affecting the trading price of our common stock may include:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to ours;

changes in the market’s expectations about our operating results;

the public’s reaction to our press releases, other public announcements and filings with the SEC;

speculation in the press or investment community;

actual or anticipated developments in our business, competitors’ businesses or the competitive landscape generally;

the operating results failing to meet the expectation of securities analysts or investors in a particular period;

changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning Science 37 or the market in general;

operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to ours;

changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;
 
30

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving us;

changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of debt;

the volume of our common stock available for public sale;

any major change in our board of directors or management;

sales of substantial amounts of our common stock by our directors, officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur;

general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, “trade wars,” pandemics (such as COVID-19) and acts of war or terrorism; and

other risk factors listed under “Risk Factors.”
Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our common stock irrespective of our operating performance. The stock market in general and the Nasdaq have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the particular companies affected. The trading prices and valuations of these stocks, and of our common stock, may not be predictable. A loss of investor confidence in the market for the stocks of other companies which investors perceive to be similar to us could depress our stock price regardless of our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations. Broad market and industry factors, including, most recently, the impact of the novel coronavirus, COVID-19, and any other global pandemics, as well as general economic, political and market conditions such as recessions or interest rate changes, may seriously affect the market price of our Common Stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. These fluctuations may be even more pronounced in the trading market for our stock shortly following the consummation of the Merger. A decline in the market price of our common stock also could adversely affect our ability to issue additional securities and our ability to obtain additional financing in the future.
Volatility in our share price could subject us to securities class action litigation.
In the past, following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market prices of particular companies’ securities, securities class action litigations have often been instituted against these companies. Litigation of this type, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management’s attention and resources, which could harm our business. Any adverse determination in any such litigation or any amounts paid to settle any such actual or threatened litigation could require that we make significant payments.
The unaudited pro forma financial information included herein may not be indicative of what our actual financial position or results of operations would have been.
This prospectus includes unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 and the nine months ended September 30, 2021 combine the historical statements of operations of LSAQ and Science 37 on a pro forma basis as if the Business Combination and related transactions had been consummated on January 1, 2020, the beginning of the earliest period presented. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of September 30, 2021 combines the historical balance sheets of LSAQ and Science 37 on a pro forma basis as if the Business Combination had been consummated on September 30, 2021.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements are presented for illustrative purposes only, are based on certain assumptions, address a hypothetical situation and reflect limited historical financial data. Therefore, the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations and financial position that would have been achieved had the business combination been consummated on the dates indicated above, or of our future consolidated results of operations or financial position. Accordingly, our business, assets, cash flows, results of operations and financial condition may differ significantly from those indicated by the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements included in this document. For more information, please see the section entitled “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information.”
 
31

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about us, or publish negative reports, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us. We do not have any control over these analysts. If our financial performance fails to meet analyst estimates or one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our common stock or change their opinion, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.
Our only significant asset is our ownership interest in Science 37 and such ownership may not be sufficient to pay dividends or make distributions or loans to enable us to pay any dividends on our common stock or satisfy our other financial obligations.
We have no direct operations and no significant assets other than our ownership of Science 37. We will depend on Science 37 for distributions, loans and other payments to generate the funds necessary to meet our financial obligations, including our expenses as a publicly traded company and to pay any dividends with respect to our common stock. The financial condition and operating requirements of Science 37 may limit our ability to obtain cash from Science 37. The earnings from, or other available assets of, Science 37 may not be sufficient to pay dividends or make distributions or loans to enable us to pay any dividends on our common stock or satisfy our other financial obligations. This lack of diversification may subject us to numerous economic, competitive and regulatory risks, any or all of which may have a substantial adverse impact upon the particular industry in which we may operate.
Since we have no current plans to pay regular cash dividends on our common stock, stockholders may not receive any return on investment unless they sell their common stock for a price greater than that which they paid for it.
We do not currently anticipate paying any regular cash dividends on our common stock. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of the Board and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements and other factors that the Board may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends is, and may be, limited by covenants of any future outstanding indebtedness we or our subsidiaries incur. Therefore, any return on investment in our common stock is solely dependent upon the appreciation of the price of our common stock on the open market, which may not occur.
Future sales of shares of our common stock may depress our stock price.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities.
Delaware law, the Charter and the Bylaws contain certain provisions, including anti-takeover provisions that limit the ability of stockholders to take certain actions and could delay or discourage takeover attempts that stockholders may consider favorable.
The Charter and the Bylaws, and the DGCL, contain provisions that could have the effect of rendering more difficult, delaying, or preventing an acquisition that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares. These provisions could also limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock, and therefore depress the trading price of our common stock. These provisions could also make it difficult for stockholders to take certain actions, including electing directors who are not nominated by the current members of our Board or taking other corporate actions, including effecting changes in our management. Among other things, the Charter and the Bylaws include provisions regarding:

a staggered Board whereby our directors are divided into three classes, with each class subject to retirement and re-election once every three years on a rotating basis;
 
32

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

the ability of our Board to issue shares of preferred stock and to determine the price and other terms of those shares, including preferences and voting rights, without stockholder approval, which could be used to significantly dilute the ownership of a hostile acquirer;

the election of directors to be determined by a plurality of votes cast by the stockholders;

the limitation of the liability of, and the indemnification of, our directors and officers;

our election to not be governed by Section 203 of the DGCL;

the limitation on the stockholders’ ability to act by written consent;

the ability of our Board to amend the bylaws, which may allow our Board to take additional actions to prevent an unsolicited takeover and inhibit the ability of an acquirer to amend the bylaws to facilitate an unsolicited takeover attempt;

advance notice procedures with which stockholders must comply to nominate candidates to our Board or to propose matters to be acted upon at a stockholders’ meeting, which could preclude stockholders from bringing matters before annual or special meetings of stockholders and delay changes in our Board and also may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us; and

the ability to call special meetings of the stockholders which can be exercised only by a majority of the Board, the chairperson of the Board, the chief executive officer or the president.
These provisions, alone or together, could delay or prevent hostile takeovers and changes in control or changes in our Board or management.
The Director Nomination Agreement, together with the Bylaws, provides the stockholders with certain governance rights with respect to us.
In connection with the Closing of the Business Combination, LSAQ entered into a Director Nomination Agreement with certain Science 37 stockholders. Pursuant to the Director Nomination Agreement, our initial board of directors will consist of at least seven members, including:

our Chief Executive Officer following the Closing, who is David Coman;

one independent director to be designated by certain entities affiliated with Redmile Group, LLC, who is Robert Faulkner;

one independent director to be designated by certain affiliates of Lux Capital, who is Adam Goulburn;

one independent director to be designated by Pharmaceutical Product Development, LLC, who is Bhooshi DeSilva; and

three additional independent directors, who are John W. Hubbard, Neil Tiwari and Emily Rollins.
The Director Nomination Agreement provides, among other things, that from and after the Closing and until such time as it holds less than 10.0% of our then-issued and outstanding common stock, each of such stockholders will be entitled to nominate one person for election as a director of the Board at the applicable meeting of the stockholders, and subject to the Board’s fiduciary duties, the Board will recommend such director nominees for stockholder approval. Upon the first vacancy on the Board, so long as LSAQ beneficially owns more than 1% of the issued and outstanding common stock of the Company and subject to the terms and conditions of the Director Nomination Agreement, LSAQ is entitled to designate one independent director (the “LSAQ Director”) to the Board who will be appointed as a Class III director.
The provision of the Bylaws requiring exclusive forum in certain courts in the State of Delaware or the federal district courts of the United States for certain types of lawsuits may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.
The Bylaws require, to the fullest extent permitted by law, that (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our
 
33

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
directors, officers or stockholders to us or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, the Charter or our bylaws or (iv) any action asserting a claim against us governed by the internal affairs doctrine will have to be brought in a state court located within the state of Delaware (or if no state court of the State of Delaware has jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware), in all cases subject to the court’s having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants. The foregoing provision will not apply to claims arising under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal securities laws for which there is exclusive federal or concurrent federal and state jurisdiction.
Additionally, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Stockholders cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring or holding any interest in shares of our capital stock will be deemed to have notice of and consented to the forum provisions in the Charter. The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ organizational documents has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that, in connection with claims arising under federal securities laws, a court could find the choice of forum provisions contained in the Bylaws to be inapplicable or unenforceable.
Although we believe these exclusive forum provisions benefit us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law and federal securities laws in the types of lawsuits to which each applies, the exclusive forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or any of our directors, officers or stockholders, which may discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims. Further, in the event a court finds either exclusive forum provision contained in the Charter to be unenforceable or inapplicable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
We are an emerging growth company, and we cannot be certain if the reduced reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make its shares less attractive to investors.
We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including exemption from compliance with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (i) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of the IPO of LSAQ, (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of shares of our common stock that are held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior June 30th and (ii) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period.
In addition, under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies.
Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we may still qualify as a “smaller reporting company,” which would allow us to take advantage of many of the same exemptions from disclosure requirements including exemption from compliance with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in this registration statement and our periodic reports and proxy statements.
We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for the common stock and its market price may be more volatile.
 
34

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
USE OF PROCEEDS
All of the securities offered by the Selling Securityholders pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the Selling Securityholders for their respective accounts. We will not receive any of the proceeds from these sales.
The Selling Securityholders will pay any underwriting discounts and commissions and expenses incurred by the Selling Securityholders for brokerage, accounting, tax or legal services or any other expenses incurred by the Selling Securityholders in disposing of the securities. We will bear the costs, fees and expenses incurred in effecting the registration of the securities covered by this prospectus, including all registration and filing fees, Nasdaq listing fees and fees and expenses of our counsel and our independent registered public accounting firm.
 
35

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
DIVIDEND POLICY
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and future earnings, if any, for the operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination related to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our board of directors after considering our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors the board of directors deems relevant, and subject to the restrictions contained in any financing instruments. The terms of our existing term loan agreement preclude us from paying cash dividends without consent. Our ability to declare dividends may also be limited by restrictive covenants pursuant to any other future debt financing agreements.
 
36

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
MARKET INFORMATION
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq under the symbol “SNCE.” Prior to the consummation of the Business Combination, our common stock, warrants and units were listed on the Nasdaq under the symbols “LSAQ”, “LSAQW” and “LSAQWU,” respectively. As of November 4, 2021, there were 204 holders of record of our common stock. The actual number of stockholders of our common stock is greater than the number of record holders and includes stockholders whose common stock is held in street name by brokers and other nominees.
 
37

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA
The following table contains selected historical consolidated financial data of Science 37 as of and for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 and as of and for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. Such data as of and for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 have been derived from the unaudited financial statements of Science 37, and such data as of and for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 have been derived from the audited financial statements of Science 37, each of which are included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Science 37’s historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future or for any full year period. The information presented below should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of Science 37,” and Science 37’s audited and unaudited financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Nine Months Ended September 30,
Year Ended December 31,
2021
2020
2020
2019
Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Loss:
Revenues:
Revenues (including amounts with related parties)
$ 39,221,524 $ 12,541,208 $ 23,704,219 $ 14,080,998
Operating expenses:
Cost of revenues (including amounts with related parties)
26,245,932 10,929,068 22,597,361 7,852,390
Selling, general and administrative
37,477,055 17,870,603 28,351,709 22,012,162
Depreciation and amortization
5,188,586 3,162,424 4,446,670 3,343,802
Restructuring costs
699,473 771,942
Total operating expenses
68,911,573 32,661,568 56,167,682 33,208,354
Loss from operations
(29,690,049) (20,120,360) (32,463,463) (19,127,356)
Other income:
Interest income
1,424 76,019 77,229 625,608
Sublease income (including amounts with related parties)
444,153 696,882 709,283
Other income
11,954 (2,489) 2,867 32,972
Total other income
457,531 770,412 789,379 658,580
Net loss and other comprehensive loss
$ (29,232,518) $ (19,349,948) $ (31,674,084) $ (18,468,776)
Loss per share:
Basic and diluted
$ (7.66) $ (2.29) $ (3.86) $ (2.22)
Weighted average common shares outstanding:
Weighted average shares used to compute basic and diluted net loss per share
3,818,717 8,458,434 8,197,409 8,310,604
Balance Sheet Data:
September 30,
2021
December 31,
2020
2019
Total assets
$ 39,746,218 $ 57,031,226 $ 40,327,720
Total liabilities
28,869,555 20,080,293 8,029,973
Total redeemable convertible preferred stock and stockholders’
deficit
10,876,663 36,950,933 32,297,747
 
38

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
UNAUDITED PRO FORMA
CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
The following unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements present the combination of the financial information of LSAQ and Science 37, adjusted to give effect to the Business Combination. The following unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared in accordance with Article 11 of Regulation S-X, as amended by the final SEC rule, Release No. 33-10786 “Amendments to Financial Disclosures about Acquired and Disposed Businesses.”
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of September 30, 2021 combines the historical consolidated balance sheet of LSAQ and the historical balance sheet of Science 37, on a pro forma basis as if the Business Combination and related transactions, summarized below, had been consummated on September 30, 2021. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 and the nine months ended September 30, 2021, combine the historical statements of operations of LSAQ and Science 37 on a pro forma basis as if the Business Combination and related transactions, summarized below, had been consummated on January 1, 2020, the beginning of the earliest period presented.
Assumptions and estimates underlying the unaudited pro forma adjustments set forth in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements are described in the accompanying notes. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements are provided for informational purposes only and are based on available information and assumptions that we believe are reasonable. It does not purport to represent what the actual consolidated results of operations or the consolidated financial position of Science 37 and LSAQ would have been if the Business Combination occurred on the dates indicated, nor is it necessarily indicative of future consolidated results of operations or consolidated financial position. The actual financial position and results of operations will differ, perhaps significantly, from the pro forma amounts reflected herein due to a variety of factors, including access to additional information and changes in operating results following the date of the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements.
On October 4, 2021, the Business Combination was approved in an LSAQ shareholder vote. The Business Combination was consummated on October 6, 2021. In connection with the consummation of the Business Combination, the parties took the actions described below under “Description of Business Combination.”
The historical financial statements have been adjusted in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements to give pro forma effect solely to transaction accounting adjustments to the extent they are adjustments that reflect the accounting for the Business Combination.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements have been developed from and should be read in conjunction with:

the accompanying notes to the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements;

the historical audited consolidated financial statements of LSAQ as of June 30, 2021 and 2020 and for the year ended June 30, 2021 and for the period from December 18, 2019 (inception) through June 30, 2020 and the related notes, which are included elsewhere herein;

the historical audited financial statements of Science 37 as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for the years then ended and the related notes, which are included elsewhere herein;

the historical unaudited financial statements of Science 37 as of September 30, 2021 and for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 and the related notes, which are included elsewhere herein; and

the historical unaudited financial statements of LSAQ as of September 30, 2021 and 2020 and for the quarters then ended and the related notes, which are included elsewhere herein;
Description of Business Combination
On May 6, 2021, LifeSci Acquisition II Corp., a Delaware corporation (“LSAQ”), entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger Agreement”) by and among LSAQ, LifeSci Acquisition II
 
39

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Merger Sub, Inc. a Delaware corporation and a wholly-owned subsidiary of LSAQ (“Merger Sub”), and Science 37, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Science 37”). Pursuant to the terms of the Merger Agreement, a business combination between LSAQ and Science 37 will be effected through the merger of Merger Sub with and into Science 37, with Science 37 surviving the merger as a wholly-owned subsidiary of LSAQ (the “Business Combination”).
Treatment of Science 37 Securities
Preferred Stock.    Immediately prior to the effective time of the Business Combination (the “Effective Time”) and subject to the consent of the holders of a majority of the then outstanding shares of Science 37’s Series A, Series, B, Series C, Series D and Series D-1 preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share (collectively, the “Science 37 Preferred Stock”), voting together as a single class on an as-converted basis, each issued and outstanding share of Science 37 Preferred Stock were converted into shares of the common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of Science 37 (the “Science 37 Common Stock”) at the then-applicable conversion rates (the “Science 37 Preferred Stock Conversion”).
Common Stock.    At the Effective Time, following the Science 37 Preferred Stock Conversion, each share of Science 37 Common Stock (including shares of Science 37 Common Stock outstanding as a result of the Science 37 Preferred Stock Conversion, but excluding shares the holders of which perfect rights of appraisal under Delaware law) was converted into the right to receive such number of shares of LSAQ Common Stock equal to the Exchange Ratio (subject to rounding mechanisms as described in the Merger Agreement) and a number of Earn-Out Shares (as defined below). The Exchange Ratio is defined in the Merger Agreement to be the quotient of (i) 100,000,000 divided by the number of shares of Science 37’s Fully Diluted Capital Stock (as defined in the Merger Agreement). The Exchange Ratio was equal to approximately 1.815.
Stock Options.    At the Effective Time, each outstanding option to purchase shares of Science 37 Common Stock granted under the Science 37, Inc. 2015 Stock Plan (each, a “Science 37 Option”), whether or not then vested and exercisable, was converted automatically (and without any required action on the part of such holder of outstanding Science 37 Option) into an option to purchase a number of shares of LSAQ Common Stock equal to the number of shares of Science 37 Common Stock subject to such Science 37 Option immediately prior to the Effective Time multiplied by the Exchange Ratio (rounded down to the nearest whole share), with a per share exercise price equal to the exercise price per share of Science 37 Common Stock of such Science 37 Option immediately prior to the Effective Time divided by the Exchange Ratio (rounded up to the nearest whole cent). Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the event the per share exercise price of a Science 37 Option is greater than or equal to the cash equivalent of a number of shares of LSAQ Common Stock equal to the Exchange Ratio, subject to rounding pursuant to the Merger Agreement, such Science 37 Option was cancelled for no consideration.
Earn-Out Shares.    Following the closing of the Business Combination, former holders of shares of Science 37 Common Stock (including shares received as a result of the Science 37 Preferred Stock conversion) and former holders of Science 37 Options will be entitled to receive their respective pro rata shares of up to 12,500,000 additional shares of LSAQ Common Stock (the “Earn-Out Shares”) if, within a three-year period following the date of the consummation of the Business Combination, the closing share price of the LSAQ Common Stock equals or exceeds any of two thresholds over any 20 trading days within a 30-day trading period (each, a “Triggering Event”), subject to, in respect of a former holder of Science 37 Options, continued services to LSAQ or one of its subsidiaries at the time of the applicable Triggering Event. If there is a change of control of LSAQ or its successor within the three-year period following the consummation of the Business Combination that will result in the holders of LSAQ Common Stock receiving a per share price equal to or in excess of any Triggering Event threshold(s), then immediately prior to such change of control, any Triggering Event that has not previously occurred shall be deemed to have occurred and LSAQ shall issue the Earn-Out Shares to the former holders of shares of Science 37 Common Stock and former holders of Science 37 Options in accordance with their respective pro rata shares.
The potential issuance of the 12,500,000 earn-out shares represents a contingent liability to be recorded at fair value on the balance sheet. This is because the potential transferee pro rata share is variable and may change as stock option holders may forfeit their pro rata share if termination occurs prior to the Triggering Event(s), and the forfeited pro rata share is reallocated to the remaining holders.
 
40

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PIPE Investment
On May 6, 2021, in connection with the execution of the Merger Agreement, LSAQ entered into subscription agreements (collectively, the “Subscription Agreements”) with certain investors (the “Subscribers”) pursuant to which the Subscribers have agreed to purchase, and LSAQ has agreed to sell to the Subscribers, an aggregate of 20,000,000 shares of LSAQ Common Stock (collectively, the “PIPE Shares”), for a purchase price of $10.00 per share and an aggregate purchase price of $200,000,000. The obligations to consummate the transactions contemplated by the Subscription Agreements are conditioned upon, among other things, customary closing conditions and the consummation of the transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement. The sale and purchase of the PIPE Shares was consummated concurrently with the Business Combination.
Redemption of LSAQ Common Stock Prior to the Closing of the Business Combination
Prior to the closing of the Business Combination, holders of shares of LSAQ Common Stock were offered the opportunity to redeem, upon the closing of the Business Combination, all or a portion of Science 37 Common Stock then held by them for cash equal to their pro rata share of the aggregate amount on deposit (as of two business days prior to the closing) in the Trust Account. Holders of 2,299,493 shares of LSAQ Common Stock exercised their right to have such shares redeemed. Accordingly, pro forma shares outstanding upon consummation of the Business Combination consist of the following:
LSAQ Initial Stockholders
2,002,260
Shares from Conversion of LSAQ Private Warrants
3,146,453
LSAQ Public Stockholders
5,709,548
Science 37 Rollover Shares
83,848,889
PIPE Shares
20,000,000
Total
114,707,150
 
41

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
SCIENCE 37 HOLDINGS, INC.
UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED BALANCE SHEET
AS OF SEPTEMBER 30, 2021
(in thousands)
Science 37
Historical
LSAQ
Historical
Transaction
Accounting
Adjustments
Notes
Pro Forma
Combined
Assets
Cash and equivalents
$ 7,996 $ 201 $ 80,122 2A $ 242,991
(22,324) 2B
200,000 2F
2G
(23,004) 2I
Restricted cash
2G
Accounts receivable (including amounts with related parties)
6,999 6,999
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
4,226 89 (986) 2B 3,329
Total current assets
19,221 290 233,808 253,319
Cash and marketable securities held in Trust Account
80,122 (80,122) 2A
Property, plant and equipment, net
1,158 1,158
Capitalized software, net
16,679 16,679
Operating lease right-of-use assets
2,362 2,362
Other assets
326 326
Total assets
$ 39,746 $ 80,412 $ 153,686 $ 273,844
Liabilities, redeemable convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ equity
(deficit)
Accounts payable
$ 7,489 $ 715 $ (649) 2B $ 7,555
Accrued expenses and other liabilities
10,727 (181) 2B 10,546
Deferred revenue
6,571 6,571
Total current liabilities
24,787 715 (830) 24,672
Long-term deferred revenue
1,056 1,056
Operating lease liabilities
1,485 1,485
Contingent liability for issuance of earn-out shares
81,800 2J 81,800
Other long-term liabilities
1,542 1,542
Total liabilities
28,870 715 80,970 110,555
Common stock subject to possible redemptions
80,091
(80,091)
2C
Redeemable convertible preferred stock
143,086
(143,086)
2D
Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
Common stock, par value
1
2C 11
1 2C
(1) 2E
8 2E
2 2F
2I
Additional paid-in capital
4,769 998 (998) 2C 300,258
81,087 2C
(22,479) 2B
143,086 2D
(8) 2E
1 2E
199,998 2F
(81,800) 2J
(23,004) 2I
(1,392) 2H
Accumulated deficit
(136,980) (1,392) 1,392 2H (136,980)
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)
(132,210) (394) 295,893 163,289
Total liabilities, redeemable convertible preferred stock and stockholders’
equity (deficit)
$ 39,746 $ 80,412 $ 153,686 $ 273,844
 
42

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
SCIENCE 37 HOLDINGS, INC.
UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS FOR
THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
Pro Forma Combined
Science 37
Historical
LSAQ
Historical
Transaction
Accounting
Adjustments
Notes
Pro Forma
Combined
Revenues (including amounts with related parties)
$ 23,704 $ $ $ 23,704
Operating expenses:
Cost of revenues (including amounts with related parties)
22,597 22,597
Selling, general and administrative
28,351 84 28,435
Depreciation
4,447 4,447
Restructuring costs
772 772
Total operating expenses
56,167 84 56,251
Loss from operations
(32,463) (84) (32,547)
Other income:
Interest income
77 5 (5)
K
77
Sublease income (including amounts with related parties)
709 709
Other income
3 3
Total other income
789 5 (5) 789
Net loss
$ (31,674) $ (79) $ (5) $ (31,758)
Weighted average common shares outstanding
Note3 114,707,150
Basic and diluted net loss per common share
Note3 $ (0.28)
 
43

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
SCIENCE 37 HOLDINGS, INC.
UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS
FOR THE NINE MONTHS ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 2021
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
Pro Forma Combined
Science 37
Historical
LSAQ
Historical
Transaction
Accounting
Adjustments
Notes
Pro Forma
Combined
Revenues (including amounts with related parties)
$ 39,222 $ $ $ 39,222
Operating expenses:
Cost of revenues (including amounts with related parties)
26,246 26,246
Selling, general and administrative
37,477 1,337 (649) L 38,165
Depreciation
5,189 5,189
Total operating expenses
68,912 1,337 (649) 69,600
Loss from operations
(29,690) (1,337) 649 (30,378)
Other income:
Interest income
2 27 (27) K 2
Sublease income
444 444
Other income
12 12
Total other income
458 27 (27) 458
Net loss
$ (29,232) $ (1,310) $ 622 $ (29,920)
Weighted average common shares outstanding
Note3 114,707,150
Basic and diluted net loss per common share
Note3 $ (0.26)
 
44

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
NOTES TO THE UNAUDITED PRO FORMA
CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
1.
Description of Business Combination and Basis of Pro Forma Presentation
On May 6, 2021, LifeSci Acquisition II Corp., a Delaware corporation (“LSAQ”), entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger Agreement”) by and among LSAQ, LifeSci Acquisition II Merger Sub, Inc. a Delaware corporation and a wholly-owned subsidiary of LSAQ (“Merger Sub”), and Science 37, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Science 37”). Pursuant to the terms of the Merger Agreement, a business combination between LSAQ and Science 37 was effected through the merger of Merger Sub with and into Science 37, with Science 37 surviving the merger as a wholly-owned subsidiary of LSAQ (the “Business Combination”). See the introduction section to this Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information for further additional details of the Business Combination.
The Business Combination is expected to be accounted for as a reverse recapitalization resulting from the acquisition by a non-operating public company that is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934). This accounting treatment as a recapitalization is consistent with Securities and Exchange Commission guidance promulgated in staff speeches and the SEC Reporting Manual, Topic 12 on Reverse Acquisitions and Recapitalizations. As such, the Business Combination is outside the scope of FASB ASC 805. Specifically, the Business Combination is expected to be treated as a reverse recapitalization in which the entity that issues securities (the legal acquirer) is determined to be the accounting acquiree, while the entity receiving securities (the legal acquiree) is the accounting acquirer.
Accordingly, the Business Combination is expected to be accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded. Under this method of accounting, LSAQ is treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the Business Combination is treated as the equivalent of Science 37 issuing stock for the net assets of LSAQ, accompanied by a recapitalization. The net assets of LSAQ are stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded.
In May 2020, the SEC adopted Release No. 33-10786, “Amendments to Financial Disclosures about Acquired and Disposed Businesses” ​(the “Final Rule”). The Final Rule became effective on January 1, 2021, and the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements herein are presented in accordance therewith.
The accompanying unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements give effect to the Business Combination in which Merger Sub, a wholly-owned subsidiary of LSAQ, merged with and into Science 37, with Science 37 surviving the merger as a wholly-owned subsidiary of LSAQ, and the related PIPE Investment. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial statements are based on the historical financial statements of Science 37 and LSAQ, and the assumptions and adjustments set forth in these notes.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of September 30, 2021 gives pro forma effect to the Business Combination as if it had been consummated on September 30, 2021. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 and the nine months ended September 30, 2021, give pro forma effect to the Business Combination as if it had been consummated on January 1, 2020.
Adjustments included in the column under the heading “Transaction Accounting Adjustments” are solely based on information contained within the Merger Agreement. Transaction Accounting Adjustments are required adjustments that reflect only the application of required accounting to the Business Combination. The pro forma basic and diluted earnings per share amounts presented in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations are based upon the number of post-combination company shares outstanding, assuming the Business Combination occurred on January 1, 2020.
Given the history of net losses and valuation allowance of Science 37 and LSAQ, management assumed a statutory tax rate of 0%. Therefore the pro forma adjustments to the statement of operations resulted in no income tax adjustment to the pro forma financial statements.
 
45

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Science 37 and LSAQ have not had any historical relationship prior to the Business Combination.
Accordingly, no pro forma adjustments were required to eliminate activities between the companies.
2.
Adjustments to Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information
Adjustments to Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Balance Sheet
The adjustments included in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of September 30, 2021 are as follows:
A
Reflects the reclassification of cash and investments held in the Trust Account that will become available for operations following the Business Combination.
B
Represents the payment of transaction costs of $23.1 million as an increase to Stockholders’ deficit.
C
Represents the conversion of LSAQ historical common stock and additional paid-in-capital accounts to approximately 7.7 million newly issued shares of Science 37 Common Stock and the conversion of LSAQ warrants to approximately 3.1 million newly issued shares of Science 37 Common Stock.
D
Represents the conversion of Science 37 preferred stock to newly issued shares of common stock upon consummation of the Business Combination.
E
Represents the issuance of 83.8 million new shares of Science 37 Common Stock to existing common and preferred stockholders at historical cost and the elimination of the previous par value accounts.
F
Represents the issuance of 20.0 million new shares of LSAQ Common Stock at $10.00 per share in the PIPE Investment for total cash of $200.0 million.
G
Represents the transfer of restricted cash to available cash and equivalents accounts as it is assumed restrictions would not have been required upon consummation of the Business Combination.
H
Represents the elimination of LSAQ accumulated deficit upon recapitalization of the Combined Company.
I
Represents adjustment to reflect redemptions of 2,299,493 shares of LSAQ Common Stock for an aggregate payment of approximately $23.0 million from the Trust Account.
J
Reflects the fair value of the Earn-Out Shares contingently issuable to the former holders of shares of Science 37 Common Stock and Science 37 Options. The fair value was determined based on information available as of the date of these unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information. For more information, see Note 4.
Adjustments to Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Statements of Operations
The pro forma adjustments included in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 and for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 is as follows:
K
Represents the pro forma adjustment to eliminate interest income generated by the Trust Account.
L
Represents facilitative transaction costs which should have no P&L impact on a pro forma basis
3.
Net Loss per Share of Non-Redeemable Common Stock
Represents the net loss per share calculated using the historical weighted average shares outstanding, and the issuance of additional shares of common stock in connection with the Business Combination, and
 
46

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
assuming the shares were outstanding since January 1, 2020. As the Business Combination is being reflected as if it had occurred at the beginning of the earliest period presented, the calculation of weighted average shares outstanding for basic and diluted net loss per share assumes that the shares issuable relating to the Business Combination have been outstanding for the entire periods presented. Also, assumes that all stock options and warrants are not included in the per share calculation as there is a net loss in all periods presented and including them would be anti-dilutive.
Holders of 2,299,493 shares of LSAQ Common Stock exercised their right to have such shares redeemed. Accordingly, pro forma shares outstanding upon consummation of the Business Combination consist of the following:
LSAQ Initial Stockholders
2,002,260
Shares from Conversion of LSAQ Private Warrants
3,146,453
LSAQ Public Stockholders
5,709,548
Science 37 Rollover Shares
83,848,889
PIPE Shares
20,000,000
Total
114,707,150
4.
Earn-Out Shares Consideration
The Earn-Out obligations to issue the Earn-Out Share Consideration will be accounted for as liability- classified instruments that are earned upon achieving certain triggering events, which includes a change in control event that is not solely indexed to the LSAQ Stock. The preliminary estimated fair value of the Earnout Consideration is $81.8 million. The estimated fair value at September 30, 2021 of the Earn-Out Shares Consideration was determined by using a Monte Carlo simulation valuation model. The preliminary estimated fair value of Earn-Out Consideration was determined using the most reliable information available. Assumptions used in the preliminary valuation were as follows:
Current stock price:    The stock price was set at $10.05 per share based on the closing price per share of LSAQ.
Expected volatility:    The volatility rate was determined by using an average of comparable public companies annualized over three years.
Risk-free interest rate:    The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of issuance for zero-coupon U.S. Treasury notes with one-year maturity.
Expected term:    The expected term is three years.
 
47

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
You should read the following discussion and analysis of Science 37’s financial condition and results of operations together with the “Selected Historical Consolidated Financial Data of Science 37” section of this prospectus and Science 37’s audited consolidated financial statements and unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this prospectus, including information with respect to Science 37’s plans and strategy for its business and related financing, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. As a result of many factors, including those factors set forth in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus, Science 37’s actual results could differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward- looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward- Looking Statements.”
Overview of Our Business and Services
Science 37 is a leading provider of technology-based solutions that enable decentralized clinical trials (or direct-to-patient virtual studies) on behalf of biopharmaceutical sponsors. Science 37 pioneered the decentralized clinical trial model and developed the industry’s first Decentralized Clinical Trial Operating System (“DCT OS”) combining its technology platform, which orchestrates workflows, supports evidence generation and harmonizes data seamlessly, with its expansive network of patient communities, on-demand telemedicine investigators, flexible mobile nurses, scalable remote coordinators and robust connected technologies. By bringing research to patients and providers more directly, Science 37’s operating system increases access and patient diversity, which can help speed the development of potentially life-saving drug treatments.
Backlog and Net Bookings
Science 37 manages and assesses its business using a number of metrics including backlog and net bookings. Science 37’s backlog represents anticipated revenue for work not yet completed or performed (i) under signed contracts, letters of intent and, in some cases, awards that are supported by other forms of written communication and (ii) where there is sufficient or reasonable certainty about the customer’s ability and intent to fund and commence the services within six months. Backlog and backlog conversion (defined as quarterly revenue for the period divided by opening backlog for that period) vary from period to period depending upon new authorizations, contract modifications, cancellations and the amount of revenue recognized under existing contracts.
Science 37 continually evaluates its backlog to determine if any previously awarded work is no longer expected to be performed. If Science 37 determines that previously awarded work is no longer probable of performance, it will remove the value from Science 37’s backlog based on the risk of cancellation. Science 37 recognizes revenue from these awards as services are performed, provided Science 37 has received proper authorization from the customer. Science 37 excludes from backlog revenues that have been recognized and reported in the statement of operations.
Although an increase in backlog will generally result in an increase in future revenue to be recognized over time (depending on future contract modifications, contract cancellations and other adjustments), an increase in backlog at a particular point in time does not necessarily correspond to an increase in revenue during a particular period. The timing and extent to which backlog will result in revenue depends on many factors, including the timing of commencement of work, the rate at which services are performed, scope changes, cancellations, delays, receipt of regulatory approvals and the nature, duration, size, complexity and phase of the studies. Science 37’s contracts generally have terms ranging from several months to several years. In addition, delayed projects remain in backlog unless they are canceled. As a result of these and other factors, including those from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, Science 37’s backlog might not be a reliable indicator of future revenue and Science 37 might not realize all or any part of the revenue from the authorizations in backlog as of any point in time.
Net bookings represents new business awards, net of award or contract modifications, contract cancellations, and other adjustments. Net bookings vary from period to period depending on numerous
 
48

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
factors, including customer authorization volume, sales performance and overall health of the general life sciences industry, among others.
Our backlog as of September 30, 2021 and 2020 and net bookings for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 were as follows:
2021
2020
Change
Backlog
$ 141,059,335 $ 49,403,119 $ 91,656,216 185.5%
Net bookings
35,864,148 8,113,128 21,751,020 342.1%
Our backlog as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and net bookings for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were as follows:
2021
2020
Change
Backlog
$ 59,595,561 $ 27,567,426 $ 32,028,135 116.2%
Net bookings
55,732,354 12,182,262 43,550,092 357.5%
The increase in net bookings for the three months ended September 30, 2021 and for the year ended December 31, 2020 and the increase in backlog as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 as compared to the prior periods were primarily due to new business as a result of increased demand for the Company’s remote clinical trial support, partially offset by cancellations and scope reductions consistent with industry standards. We expect this growth to continue as companies are pursuing and realizing the many benefits of decentralized trials.
Components of Results of Operations
Revenues
Science 37 derives its revenues primarily from two sources: (i) contractual arrangements to enable and enhance clinical trials through technology and/or services, and (ii) licensing of its proprietary technology platform to a variety of life science institutions.
Total revenues are comprised of revenues from the provision of Science 37’s decentralized services, including enhanced services from the use of Science 37’s hosted proprietary software. Revenues also include reimbursable and out of pocket expenses provided for in Science 37’s contracts with its customers.
Cost of Revenues
Cost of revenues includes the cost to conduct Science 37’s trials remotely and make available Science 37’s technology solutions. Cost of revenues consist primarily of compensation, benefits, and other employee- related costs, including expenses for stock-based compensation, contract labor, trial advertising and marketing, investigator payments, and reimbursable out-of-pocket expenses directly related to delivering on Science 37’s contracts.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses include costs related to sales, marketing, and administrative functions (including human resources, legal, finance and general management) such as compensation and benefits, travel, professional services, facilities, recruiting and relocation, training, sales commissions and expenses for stock-based compensation and information technology.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization represent the costs charged for Science 37’s property, equipment and capitalized software. Science 37 records depreciation and amortization on property and equipment using the straight-line method, based on the estimated useful lives of the respective assets. Science 37 depreciates leasehold improvements over the shorter of the lease term or the estimated useful lives of the improvements. Science 37 amortizes software developed for internal use over three years.
 
49

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Restructuring Costs
Restructuring costs consist of employee severance and benefits. Science 37 carried out a reduction in force in administrative positions on February 28, 2020 to better align resources with its then-current needs.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Other income (expense), net, consists of interest income, sublease income, and other income (expense).
Results of Operations
Three Months Ended September 30, 2021 Compared to Three Months Ended September 30, 2020
Revenue
Revenue for the three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 was as follows:
2021
2020
Change
Revenue
$ 14,235,697 $ 6,583,413 $ 7,652,284 116.2%
Revenue increased $7.7 million, or 116.2%, to $14.2 million for the three months ended September 30, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020 due to organic volume growth resulting from higher opening backlog at the beginning of the period as compared to the prior year, as well as from new bookings and associated revenue related to the COVID-19 pandemic where, beginning in the second quarter of 2020, we experienced significant and continuing growth in demand for our core competency, decentralized trials and trial support. We expect this growth to continue as companies are pursuing and realizing the many benefits of decentralized trials.
Cost of Revenues
Cost of revenues for the three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 was as follows:
2021
2020
Change
Cost of revenues, exclusive of depreciation and amortization
$ 10,318,268 $ 7,050,897 $ 3,267,371 46.3%
% of revenue
72.5% 107.1%
Cost of revenues increased $3.3 million, or 46.3% for the three months ending September 30, 2021 compared to the same period in 2020, primarily to support revenue growth during 2021. To support the revenue growth in 2021 the Company experienced increases in direct compensation-related expenses and higher vendor costs for translation, investigators, and nurses for trial-related patient activity. Staffing also increased to enable rapid expansion into new markets and therapeutic areas. The increase was partially offset by a decline in trial advertising for patient recruitment which was at its peak for one of the Company’s customers in the second half of 2020.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative costs for the three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 was as follows:
2021
2020
Change
Selling, general and administrative expenses
$ 16,931,866 $ 6,301,712 $ 10,630,154 168.7%
% of revenue
118.9% 95.7%
Selling, general and administrative expense increased by $10.6 million, or 168.7% for the three months ended September 30, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020, mainly due to increased headcount to support significant company growth as well as planned investment in anticipation of the merger with LSAQ. The increased headcount lead to increases in salary and benefits, web services and software, and employee
 
50

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
recruiting costs. The Company also saw increases in Consulting costs, related to the accelerated timeline imposed by the merger agreement, stock-based compensation expense due to an increase in the value of the Company’s stock during the second quarter of 2021 in anticipation of the merger with LSAQ, professional fees and marketing, largely related to company growth and the merger, and capitalized sales commissions amortization expense due to significantly more bookings and revenue for the three months ended September 30, 2021 compared to the same period in 2020. These increases were partially offset by an increase in salaries recorded to capitalized software due to a large increase in technology related payroll due to additional focus on proprietary software improvements.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization expense for the three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 was as follows:
2021
2020
Change
Depreciation and amortization
$ 1,915,517 $ 1,141,801 $ 773,716 67.8%
% of revenue
13.5% 17.3%
Depreciation and amortization expense increased by $0.8 million, or 67.8%, for the three months ended September 30, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020 due to amortization on a larger capitalized software balance year over year consistent with the Company’s focus on continuous improvement of its proprietary software.
Restructuring
There were no restructuring activities for the three months ended September 30, 2021 or 2020.
Other Income, Net
Other income, net for the three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 was as follows:
2021
2020
Change
Interest income
$ 151 $ 1,554 $ (1,403) -90.3%
Sublease income
$ 230,235 $ 232,294 $ (2,059) -0.9%
Other income (expense)
$ 7,697 $ (6,681) $ 14,378 215.2%
Nine Months Ended September 30, 2021 Compared to Nine Months Ended September 30, 2020
Revenue
Revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 was as follows:
2021
2020
Change
Revenue
$ 39,221,524 $ 12,541,208 $ 26,680,316 212.7%
Revenue increased $26.7 million, or 212.7%, to $39.2 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020 due to organic volume growth resulting from higher opening backlog at the beginning of the period as compared to the prior year, as well as from new bookings and associated revenue related to significant and continuing growth in demand for the Company’s core competency, decentralized trial and trial support. We expect this growth to continue as companies are pursuing and realizing the many benefits of decentralized trials.
Cost of Revenues
Cost of revenues for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 was as follows:
2021
2020
Change
Cost of revenues, exclusive of depreciation and amortization
$ 26,245,932 $ 10,929,068 $ 15,316,864 140.1%
% of revenue
66.9% 87.1%
 
51

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Cost of revenues increased $15.3 million, or 140.1% for the nine months ending September 30, 2021 compared to the same period in 2020, primarily to support revenue growth during 2021. To support revenue growth the Company experienced increases in compensation-related expenses including passthrough costs and nurses for trial-related patient activity. Staffing also increased to enable rapid expansion into new markets and therapeutic areas. The increase was partially offset by a decrease in trial advertising for patient recruitment which was at its peak for one of the Company’s customers in the second half of 2020.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative costs for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 was as follows:
2021
2020
Change
Selling, general and administrative expenses
$ 37,477,055 $ 17,870,603 $ 19,606,452 109.7%
% of revenue
95.6% 142.5%
Selling, general and administrative expense increased by $19.6 million, or 109.7% for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020, mainly due to investments to support significant company growth as well as planned investment in anticipation of the merger with LSAQ. This resulted in increased headcount leading to increases in salary and benefits, web services, software, and employee recruiting costs. Stock based compensation also increased due to an increase in the value of the Company’s stock during the second quarter of 2021 in anticipation of the merger with LSAQ. Consulting services increased due to technology consulting needs for an increased number of contracts and individual contract proprietary software needs, human resources consulting to assist with the Company’s expansion, and non-facilitative merger related consulting. Capitalized sales commissions amortization expense increased due to significantly more bookings and revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 compared to the same period in 2020. These increases were partially offset by an increase in salaries recorded to capitalized software due to a large increase in technology related payroll due to additional focus on proprietary software improvements.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization expense for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 was as follows:
2021
2020
Change
Depreciation and amortization
$ 5,188,586 $ 3,162,424 $ 2,026,162 64.1%
% of revenue
13.2% 25.2%
Depreciation and amortization expense increased by $2.0 million, or 64.1%, for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 as compared to the same period in 2020 due to amortization on a larger capitalized software balance year over year consistent with the Company’s focus on continuous improvement of its proprietary software.
Restructuring
Restructuring costs for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 were as follows:
2021
2020
Restructuring costs
$ $ 699,473
Restructuring costs decreased for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 compared to the same period in 2020 due to a reduction in force in administrative positions in early 2020 to better align resources with then-current needs and future growth strategy. There were no restructuring activities for the nine months ended September 30, 2021.
 
52

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Other Income, Net
Other income, net for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 was as follows:
2021
2020
Change
Interest income
$ 1,424 $ 76,019 $ (74,595) -98.1%
Sublease income
$ 444,153 $ 696,882 $ (252,729) -36.3%
Other income (expense)
$ 11,954 $ (2,489) $ 14,443 580.4%
Interest income decreased ($0.1) million primarily due to a lower average rate of interest earned on the Company’s money market investment account resulting from changes in the economy throughout the period of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as a lower cash balance, on average, for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 compared to the same period in 2020.
Sublease income decreased by ($0.3) million due to one of the Company’s sublease tenant’s inability to pay caused by the impact of COVID-19 on their business operations and their eventual vacating of the premises. A new subtenant was not secured until May 2021.
Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2019
Revenue
Revenue for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 was as follows:
2020
2019
Change
Revenue
$ 23,704,219 $ 14,080,998 $ 9,623,221 68.3%
Revenue increased by $9.6 million, or 68.3%, to $23.7 million from $14.1 million in 2019. The increase was attributable to revenue conversion on higher backlog as a result of an increase in net bookings. Backlog increased 116.2% over the same period primarily from investment in commercial sales infrastructure coupled with increased revenue related to increased demand for Science 37’s services due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Cost of Revenues
Cost of revenues for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 was as follows:
2020
2019
Change
Cost of revenues, exclusive of depreciation and amortization
$ 22,597,361 $ 7,852,390 $ 14,744,971 187.8%
% of revenue
95.3% 55.8%
Cost of revenues increased $14.7 million, or 187.8% to $22.6 million from $7.9 million in 2019. This increase was primarily to support higher volume during 2020 that resulted in increases in compensation- related expenses and higher recruitment costs for clinical trial participation as a percentage of revenue.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative costs for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 was as follows:
2020
2019
Change
Selling, general and administrative expenses
$ 28,351,709 $ 22,012,162 $ 6,339,547 28.8%
% of revenue
119.6% 156.3%
Selling, general and administrative expense increased by $6.3 million, or 28.8% to $28.4 million from $22.0 million in 2019, mainly due to headcount increases year over year related to significant company
 
53

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
growth and a hiring freeze during 2020. This resulted in increases in salary, healthcare, payroll taxes, vacation, bonus, web services, software, internet, telephone, and employee recruiting costs. Consulting services also increased due to technology consulting needs for an increased number of contracts and individual contract proprietary software needs. Capitalized sales commissions amortization expense increased due to significantly more bookings as compared to 2019. These increases were partially offset by an increase in salaries recorded to capitalized software due to a large increase in technology related payroll as a result of additional focus on proprietary software improvements.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization expense for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 was as follows:
2020
2019
Change
Depreciation and amortization
$ 4,446,670 $ 3,343,802 $ 1,102,868 33.0%
% of revenue
18.8% 23.7%
Depreciation and amortization expense increased by $1.1 million, or 33.0%, as compared to the same period in 2019 due to amortization on a larger capitalized software balance year over year consistent with Science 37’s focus on continuous improvement of its proprietary software.
Restructuring Costs
Restructuring costs for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were as follows:
2020
2019
Restructuring costs
$ 771,942 $
Restructuring costs increased for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the same period in 2020 due to a reduction in force in administrative positions in early 2020 to better align resources with then-current needs and future growth strategy.
Other Income, Net
Other income for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 were as follows:
2020
2019
Change
Interest income
$ 77,229